Clement Frederick Gray

Clement Frederick Gray is an extraordinary and noteworthy character in the medical history of Newmarket (especially see the remarks made after his death, at the end of this account). He was the son of Frederick Clement Gray, and followed his father into the medical profession, joining him in practice at Newmarket.

His father Frederick came to Newmarket quite late in life, so Clement didn’t grow up in the town. He was born in London in 1846, but the family moved to Sheerness on the Isle of Sheppey whilst he was still very young, where they lived until Clement entered his teens. Then the family briefly moved to Melbourn in south-west Cambridgeshire for a few years before relocating to Holmes Chapel in Cheshire (see The Grays for more details regarding these early moves, and the page on Frederick Gray). They would have been living in Cheshire when Clement started as an apprentice to his father, in 1863 aged 17. The family moved to Newmarket in 1866, exactly when Clement started attending lectures in London. There he gained his hospital experience at St Bartholomew’s Hospital (i.e. Bart’s, like his father), qualifying in 1870, joining the Medical Register in 1871.

A photograph of Clement Gray when relatively young (see below or click image for source and acknowledgements etc., ref. Image 1).

A photograph of Clement Gray when relatively young (see below or click image for source and acknowledgements etc., ref. Image 1).

Soon after starting to practise in Newmarket with his father (first recorded on the 1871 census), Clement Gray’s long association with the Newmarket Union poor law institution began. In 1872 George Borwick Mead (from another practice) nominated him as substitute in the case of absence from his duties as medical officer for the workhouse and District 3 of the Union (which comprised several villages south and east of Newmarket). The following year Clement obtained his own Newmarket Union role, as Medical officer for District 1, which was basically the whole of Newmarket town (both the All Saints’ and St Mary’s parishes), on the retirement of Robert Fyson from that position. Then in 1874 Clement became medical officer to the workhouse as well, following the resignation of Dr Mead, and likewise for District 3 in 1875. Interestingly, Clement doesn’t appear to have applied for this District 3 post, it was simply annexed to his District 1 by the Board of Guardians. He continued working in these Newmarket Union roles just short of four decades! This included acting as public vaccinator – which would have been specifically for smallpox at that time, not tetanus etc., unfortunately for the victim of a racing accident he attended to in 1900, who died from tetanus rather than the injury itself. A change to the vaccination schedule in 1879 detailed in the references below provides some interesting insight into how the public vaccinator role was organised (see Newmarket and smallpox also). Interestingly, a fascinating newspaper report regarding Christmas Day in 1877 shows how the whole Gray family enthusiastically supported Clement in these roles (again see the references below), which fits well with comments made about the family in 1917 (see The Grays for details). One interesting and surprising feature of the workhouse medical officer role was that it involved being subject to government inspections, including one during Clement Gray’s time in 1886 (so such ordeals are not a modern invention!). Another surprising feature is that occasional complaints were received and dealt with, much the same as today (see August 1875 in the references below).

Perhaps the most extraordinary event in Clement Gray’s career came in 1883, when he performed a Cæsarian section in someone’s house, with the help of several other Newmarket medics, including his father (click here for the full details). Other notable medical events/roles detailed in the references below include performing early mental health ‘sections’, the issuing of early ‘sick notes’, fitness for work reports and ‘fit notes’, his attention to diet (in common with others like William Henry Day – see a section about this on the Newmarket Union page also), and his enthusiastic support for the abstinence movement. He was also medical officer to the Fever Hospital, and as with all Newmarket medics of his era saw patients at the Rous Memorial Hospital as well.

Also in common with other medics of this period Clement Gray was variably referred to as a General (Medical) Practitioner, surgeon, or physician. Interestingly, early in his career he tended to be called Mr Gray, but towards the end Dr Gray, despite gaining no extra qualifications (see The history of medical treatments, training, qualifications and regulation for further discussion, and regarding these various designations more generally). In the Grays case ‘Dr’ was perhaps partly a good differentiator between Dr Frederick Gray, who had an MD qualification and Clement who didn’t.

Up until 1888, when Frederick Gray died, it seems Clement and his father ran their practice together from the family home at Lushington House without any mention of other medics assisting them. After his father’s death it appears Clement had a series of assistants, including John Matthews Jones, James Findlay, Sidney Ernest Atkins, James Percy Grieves, Bernard Newmarch Molineux and James Harvie. Then his sons Gilbert Clement Gray and Norman Gray came on stream in about 1909/10 and 1915/6 respectively. The assistants initially lived in Carl House, Grafton Street, which perhaps the Grays owned? Either way, in 1895 Clement Gray bought Clifton House, next door to Lushington House (on the western side), which it seems was used for the assistants thereafter.

In 1921 Clement then bought Godolphin House on the eastern side of Lushington House as well. It appears that following this purchase the property was divided into three sections (see the page on The Grays for more details and maps). The original garden of Godolphin House was added to the Lushington House property, and in 1924/5 Alton House built in part of this new extended garden (named after Alton in Hampshire, the birth place of Frederick Gray). Allegedly Alton House was the first purpose built GP surgery in the country (according to my partners when I first joined The Rookery Medical Centre – which is where the Alton House practice relocated to in 1974, see The Rookery practice chain). Another fascinating historical fact is that during Clement’s time the practice obtained the very simple early telephone number ‘Newmarket 8’ (!), first recorded at Lushington House in 1906, still in use at Alton House in 1926.

A picture of Clement Gray later in life (see below or click image for source and acknowledgements etc., ref. Image 2).

A picture of Clement Gray later in life (see below or click image for source and acknowledgements etc., ref. Image 2).

The move to Alton House Surgery seems to have coincided with Clement’s final retirement, although a 1925 trade directory suggests a brief overlap. He’d retired from the Newmarket Union roles in 1913, aged 65, drawing his pension from there at that stage. However, there’s evidence of him working after that as part of ‘Gray and Sons’. In 1925 Harold Hendley joined the Lushington House practice, apparently as Clement’s replacement. From that point the practice became known as Grays and Hendley at Alton House. In 1926 Clement stopped mentioning the practice in his Medical Directory entry, or any involvement with the Rous Memorial Hospital either, although ‘retired’ does not appear in his Medical Directory entry until 1928.

So it appears that Clement Gray had a Newmarket medical career spanning about 54 years (1871 to 1925 – not quite matching Walter Norton’s 58 years!*). He would have seen many changes in the other Newmarket practices during that long career. Most interesting perhaps is that the Fyson practice might well have been absorbed into the Grays practice on the death of the appropriately named Ernest Last Fyson in 1917 (Clement Gray covered his practice during Ernest Fyson’s final illness and no-one else appears to have succeeded to it). Clement Gray would also have known both Meads, father and son, their successor Ernest Crompton, and seen the end of that practice in 1922. During the first decade of Clement’s career Richard Faircloth’s practice passed to John Rowland Wright. Then, after a brief time in partnership with Walter Hutchinson, Wright and Hutchinson diverged. John Wright was later succeeded by John Hansby Maund, and Walter Hutchinson by Sidney Winslow Woollett, all within Clement’s time.

Finally, the most amazing thing about Clement Frederick Gray is the remarks made following his death. There had already been signs from some comments made in 1911 (see the references below) and at his retirement from the Newmarket Union in 1913, when they added a year to his pension in recognition of his contribution, thus making it a full pension. Also, at the sad death of his daughter in law in 1917 (see the page on Norman Gray), the Newmarket Journal made the incidental remark ‘There is probably no man in New-market who is held in such general affection and esteem as Dr. Gray, sen.’ Then at his death in 1943 the following comments were made about him in the same local Newspaper:-

‘No-one has greater opportuni-ties of serving his fellows than a doctor and no medical man ever made fuller use of those oppor-tunites than Dr. Clement Frederick Gray… For two generations he was the much beloved friend and physician of a great part of the population of Newmarket. An earnest Christian, his sym-pathies and practical help were extended not only to the Church of England, of which he was a devout and active member, but also to the Free Churches of the town and district. Since his early manhood he had been an ardent worker for the total abstinence cause; and he was also keenly interested in many religious and philanthropic or-ganisations. His transparent sincerity and freedom from self seeking gained him the high respect and complete trust of all who knew him; while his kindly, generous and sympathetic nature won for him the affection of all in the community. No man ever served his day and generation more devotedly and disinterest-edly.’

On another page there was a much longer report extending to three columns, some key points from which paint an even more amazing picture and are quite a tribute:-

‘It is with profound and sincere regret – a regret which will be fully shared by everyone in New-market and district – that we re-cord the death of Dr. Clement Frederick Gray… For some-thing like 60 years he had the largest medical practice in New-market and district, his patients including people of all classes, from some of the highest in the land down to the poorest mem-bers of the community. He was the Poor Law doctor for New-market for a great many years, and was also medical officer for the Newmarket Isolation Hos-pital from the date of its open-ing… He was, too, medical officer for various friendly societies. / Despite the calls upon him of a busy practice, Dr. Gray found time to interest himself in many religious and philanthroptic or-ganisations. He had rendered valuable service to the Newmar-ket District Nursing Association ever since it was started… For the greater part of his life he had been closely associated with All Saints’ Chruch, New-market, and for many years he was people’s [sic] churchwarden of the parish… /… Dr. Gray was joint hon. sec-retary of the Newmarket Auxil-iary of the British and Foreign Bible Society, an organisation in which, up to his death, he took a particularly keen interest. He was also a staunch supporter of the Church of England Mission-ary Society, and of many other missionary and religious organi-sations, and frequently granted the use of his house and his beautiful grounds for drawing room and garden meetings on be-half, not only of Church of Eng-land societies, but also of Free Church organisations. In early manhood, he became associated with the All Saints’, Newmarket Band of Hope, of which he was superintendent for a very long period. He was one of the man-agers of All Saints’ Church of England Schools, represented the parish at many diocesan confer-ences, and held various other offices. / Dr. Gray married, over 60 years ago, Miss Eleanor Rowley. Born at Wolverhampton, she came to Newmarket about 63 years ago to reside at All Saints’ Vicarage [she is recorded as the housekeeper on the 1881 census – aged 25]… In his married life Dr. Gray was singularly happy. He and his wife were kindred spirits in the fullest sense of the term – earnest, devout, broad-minded Christians who practised to the full the principles they professed; and who spent the whole of their lives in helping others, and found much joy and happiness in their labours… No man was ever so generally esteemed, respected and beloved in Newmarket as Dr. Clement Gray… his death leaves a gap which can never be filled. Of him, it can truly be said that “he went about doing good,” and his life and example were potent in-fluences for good. Now that he has entered into his reward his memory will be cherished, and revered by everybody who had the privilege of knowing him.’ There was even a ‘Dr. Gray’s Bible Class’ mentioned!

Memorial to Clement Gray (and his wife) inside the pulpit of All Saints' Church, Newmarket (see below or click image for source and acknowledgements etc., ref. Image 3).

Memorial to Clement Gray (and his wife) inside the pulpit of All Saints’ Church, Newmarket (see below or click image for source and acknowledgements etc., ref. Image 3).

Clement Gray seems to have been one of those individuals blessed with an extraordinary capacity, perhaps related to energy levels inherited from his father? Whatever it was he certainly put such resources to very good use. Those of us less well equipped might perhaps learn from his balance if not the scope and magnitude of his many activities and achievements? It’s been said that he was grumpy when called out on night visits (!), an understandable flaw (although I’m not so sure whether that local memory might more likely come from recollections of one of the later Grays?). Anyway, none of us are perfect (most of us far from it), which thankfully is why there are the lessons of Thomas Fraser as well. There’s hope for us all.

* Unless we should count from 1866 (see comments on the 1869 LSA reference below), in which case his Newmarket career might actually have been the longest, Walter Norton’s being calculated from the start of his apprenticeship to John Edwards in 1779. 

Image sources and acknowledgements:-

Image 1: From a private collection; image ©, reproduced with kind permission of the Cantrill family. 

Image 2: From a private collection (cropped); image ©, reproduced with kind permission of Cathy Smith. 

Image 3: Photograph taken in 2019, by the author of talkingdust.net.

Note: see comments regarding images and copyright © etc. on the Usage &c. page as well. 

Relevant references in chronological order

1846, 10th June: Clement Frederick son of Frederick Clement and Sophia Gray of Forest Row baptised, St John’s Church, Hackney, London. Reference: Online image of the Hackney St John’s parish register held at the London Metropolitan Archives, ancestry.co.uk (accessed 15th July 2017). [Note: Frederick’s occupation is recorded as ‘surgeon’.], [Note also, his date of birth was 22nd May 1846 – revealed by his 1869 LSA examination record below.]

1851, 30th/31st March: Clement F. Gray born in Dalstone [sic], Middlesex, aged 4, ‘scholar at home’, residing in Sheerness on the Isle of Sheppey, Kent, in the household of his father Fredk C. Gray ‘surgeon M.R.C.S. & L.S.A.’, with his mother, three sisters and three servants. Reference: The National Archives, 1851 census. [Note: his sisters were Emily aged 7, born in Highgate, Middlesex, Jane aged 6, born in Woodford, Essex, and Ellen aged 3, born in Sheerness, Kent.]

1861, 7/8th April: Clement F Gray born in Dalston, Middlesex, aged 14, ‘Surgeon’s son’, residing in Melbourn High Street, Cambridgeshire, in the household of his father Frederick C. Gray (with his qualifications listed and the abbreviation ‘GP’), with his mother, three sisters and some visitors and servants. Reference: The National Archives, 1861 census. [Note: his younger sister Ellen from the 1851 census above is missing, and he had a new younger sister Florence aged 3, born in Sheerness, Kent.]

1866, 16th October: The first mention of Clement’s father Frederick in Newmarket, ‘Newmarket Farmers’ Club.- An adjourned meeting of the members of the Farmers Club Committee was held at the Golden Lion Inn, on Tuesday last… Dr. Gray, of Newmarket, was elected a member of the association.’ Reference: Cambridge Chronicle and University Journal. Saturday Oct 20 1866: 8. [Note: see the page on Frederick Clement Gray for an image.]

1869, 4th March: Clement Frederick Gray passed the first part of his LSA examination, apprenticed to ‘‘Fred’. [sic] C Gray’. Reference: Court of Examiners Candidates’ Qualification Entry Book, The Society of Apothecaries Archives, Apothecaries’ Hall, Black Friars Lane, London EC4V 6EJ. [Note: the apprenticeship is recorded to have started in June 1863, he started attending lectures in October 1866 (interestingly exactly when Frederick Gray appears to have moved to Newmarket – see reference above), and he gained his hospital experience at St Bartholomew’s Hospital. It says that his apprenticeship was for 5 years (the standard length) so presumably 3 years in Cheshire, 2 years in Newmarket, but an unclear amount of the latter two spent in London attending lectures – see The History of medical treatments, training, qualifications and regulation for more background.], [Note also, he passed the second part of the examination on 24th November 1870, which is when he officially qualified.], [Note also, his actual date of birth (as opposed to baptism) is recorded as 22nd May 1846 here.]

1871, 2nd/3rd April: Clement F Grey [sic] born in Dalston, Middlesex, aged 24, ‘Gen Practitioner London’ living in Lushington House, Terrace, Newmarket, in the household of his father Frederick C Grey [sic] also described as ‘Gen Practitioner London’ presumably referring to their place of qualification, with his mother, and various other family members and servants. Reference: The National Archives, 1871 census. [Note: although he qualified in 1870 (see 1869 notes above) he in fact joined the Medical Register the day before this census was taken! (see the next reference).]

1872: ‘GRAY, CLEMENT F., Newmarket, Cambs.- M.R.C.S. Eng. and L.S.A. 1870; (St. Barthol.)’. Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1872. [Note: he is not in the 1871 directory (nor register), and this entry has an annotation to signify that he ‘had not registered under “The Medical Act,” up to November 1, 1871.’ – interestingly this annotation does not disappear until the 1874 edition, but the later Medial Registers indicate that he did in fact register on 1st April 1871. This is perhaps because for some unknown reason he does not appear in the Medical Register until the 1874 edition.]

1872, 25th June:Dr Mead named Mr. Clement Gray of Newmarket a legally qualified Medical Practitioner to whom application for medicine or attendance may be made in the case of his absence from home or other hindrance to his personal attendance – approved’. Reference: 611/28, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).

1873, 23rd September: ‘Clement F. Gray Esq of High Street Newmarket’ elected Medical Officer for District 1 of the Newmarket Union (this comprised the parishes of Newmarket St Mary and Newmarket All Saints’, and was following the resignation of Robert Fyson from the post, minuted on 2nd September; it appears he was the only candidate – likely Ernest Fyson was not in Newmarket at this stage), ‘Mr Gray to enter upon his duties on the 30th Instant’. Reference: 611/28, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).

1874: ‘Gray Clement, surgeon, High street’ listed in Newmarket. Reference: History, gazetteer and directory of Suffolk… . Sheffield: William White; 1874, pg 387. [Note: Gray Frederick Clement, M.D. physician, High street, Faircloth Richard, surgeon, High street, Fyson Robert, surgeon, High street, Mead George Borwick, M.D. surgeon, High street, and Wright John Rowland, surgeon, High street are listed separately.]

1874, February/March: ‘NEWMARKET. PROPOSED ESABLISHMENT OF A COTTAGE HOSPITAL. A few years ago the question of establishing a Cottage Hospital in Newmarket was mooted by Dr. Gray, of this town,…’ (see the page on Frederick Clement Gray for more details, and the page on the Rous Menorial Hospital). He was unable to attend the public meeting about this due to sickness, but interestingly ‘Mr. GRAY’ spoke at the meeting, presumably Clement? Reference: The Bury and Norwich Post. Tuesday Mar 3 1874: 8. [Note: see the page about the Rous Memorial Hospital for an image also.]

1874, 27th October: ‘Mr. Clement Frederick Gray’ elected ‘Medical Officer of the Workhouse’, apparently unopposed (this was following George Borwick Mead’s resignation minuted on 6th October). Reference: 611/29, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).

1875, 9th March: ‘This being the day fixed for the election of a Medical Officer for District number 3 and the clerk having reported that although an advertisement had appeared in the Local and Medical papers announcing the vacancy no application for the office had been received the Guardians proceeded to consider the best means of providing for the medical attendance upon Paupers in that District when it was ultimately… unanimously resolved to add the parishes comprising that District to the first District and to increase the salary of Mr. Clement F. Gray the Medical Officer of the last mentioned District’. Reference: 611/29, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).

1875, 25th March: ‘UNION MEDICAL DISTRICTS.- The Union medical district comprising the parishes of Ashley, Cheveley, Kennet, Moulton, and Woodditton, for several years held by Dr. Mead, has been annexed to that held by Mr. Clement F. Gray, son and partner of Dr. Gray, of Newmarket, who will commence his new duties on the 25th inst. About 12 months ago Mr. Gray was appointed to the district of Newmarket St. Mary’s and All Saints, on the resignation of Mr. Fyson, and after the small-pox epidemic, during which he was hospital doctor, he was unanimously elected successor to Dr. Mead as medical officer of the Workhouse.’ Reference: The Bury and Norwich Post. Tuseday Mar 23 1875: 8. [Note: the hospital referred to was a temporary hospital on Newmarket Heath – see the page on Newmarket and smallpox.]

1875, 31st August: A complaint made regarding Clement Gray’s treatment of a patient. ‘Mr Gray being in attendance was called into the Board Room and having been informed of the complaint promised to forward to the clerk a written explanation’. Reference: 611/29, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: we tend to think of occasional such complaints as being a modern phenomenon. It’s an interesting feature of these 19th century Newmarket Union minutes that obviously they are not (see some others mentioned alongside one involving Richard Faircloth’s assistant in 1849). It’s also encouraging that even the likes of Clement Gray suffered complaints! On 7th September the clerk ‘laid before the Board and read an explanation from Mr. Clement Frederick Gray’ and it was noted that ‘since Mr. Gray’s appointment as an Officer of this Union his duties have as in this instance, been satisfactorily performed’.]

1877, 17th July: ‘A letter from Mr Clement Gray, Medical Officer of the workhouse and of No 1 District was read intimating that he would shortly be absent from his District for two or three weeks when his father Mr F. C. Gray of Newmarket will perform his duties’. Reference: 611/30, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).

1877, 25th December: ‘CHRISTMAS-DAY AT THE UNION-HOUSE.- On Christmas-day the inmates of the Union-house were greeted at an early hour by the fife-and-drum band of St. Mary’s, con-ducted by Mr. John Turner, who promenaded the yards and played several lively airs. The inmates of all classes were made as comfortable as the bountiful supply of roast beef, roast pork, plum pudding, ale, &c., could possibly make them, and they appeared well satisfied, adding that “they wished there was a Christmas-day every month.” Mrs. Gray and family, C. F. Gray, Esq., Medical Officer, and the Rev. J. Denman, Chaplain, visited the various wards, and all seemed much pleased at the content and thankfulness exhibited by the aged, sick, and children, the latter looking remarkably clean and healthy under the care of their recently appointed teachers, Mr. Wm. Eade and Mrs. Eade. Mr. Richard Barrow, a Guardian, provided a very liberal supply of tea and loaf sugar for the infirm and aged women. Miss Seaber, Mrs. C. Hammond, and several other ladies and gentlemen gave their usual gifts.’ Reference: The Bury and Norwich Post. Tuesday Jan 1 1878: 8. [Note: I used this as the basis for a Christmas card sent to all staff at The Rookery Medical Centre, Christmas 2013.]

1879, 5th August: ‘Upon the application of Mr. Clement F. Gray Public Vaccinator the following alterations were… made in the times and places appointed for vaccination and inspection respectively within his district’ e.g. ‘Days of attendance at Moulton Station from first and third Thursdays in March and September to second and third Wednesdays at 3 o’clock P.M. instead of nine o’clock A.M’. Reference: 611/30, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: a similar regimen is described with Richard Faircloth in 1869.]

1881, 3rd/4th April: Clement F Gray born in Dalston, London, aged 34, ‘General Practitioner’ living at 2 The Terrace (i.e. Lushington House), in the household of his father Fredk. C. Gray ‘General Practitioner’, with his mother, and various other family members and servants. Reference: The National Archives, 1881 census. [Note: his wife to be, Eleanor Rowley, can be seen as the housekeeper at All Saints’ church Vicarage, aged 25.]

1882, 30th March: Clement Frederick Gray, surgeon of Newmarket, married Eleanor Rowley at Wolverhampton. Reference: Online image of the Wolverhampton St Mark’s marriage register held at the Staffordshire County Record Office, Stafford, www.findmypast.co.uk (accessed 26th July 2019).

1883, 8th July: Performed a Cæsarian section section operation at a patient’s house in Newmarket. Reference: Gray C. Case of caesarean section in a dwarf: recovery of the mother. The British Medical Journal 1883;2(1189):727. [Note: Frederick Gray (Dr Gray), Robert Fyson, Ernest Last Fyson and Walter Hutchinson were also present.], [Note also, click here for a full account of this incident.]

1883, 18th December: ‘Mr Clement F. Gray, Medical Officer of the Workhouse in pursuance of section 22 of the 30 and 31 Victoria Cap. 106 reported that he had examined… [5 names]… inmates of the Workhouse and that they are each suffering from mental disease and not in a proper state to leave the workhouse without danger. The said reports having been read and considered it was ordered that Mr Charles Blake Fisher master of the workhouse do detain the said… [5 names]… until the Medical Officer shall have certified in writing that they or either of them may be discharged from the said workhouse.’ Reference: 611/32, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: there are later similar entries regarding other patients. Sometimes, however, patients were transferred to an asylum for various reasons, for example on 6th September 1887 following reported ‘gross misconduct… towards the nurse’ a patient was transferred ‘to the Cambridge Lunatic Asylum without delay’ after ‘consulting with Mr Clement F. Gray Medical Officer as to his mental state’. Reference: 611/33. See also the section on the page about the Newmarket Union regarding asylums etc.]

1885, 12th June: Gilbert Clement Gray, son of Clement Frederick (surgeon) and Eleanor, Lushington House, baptised at All Saints’, Newmarket. Reference: Microfiche of Newmarket All Saints’ parish register (fiche 13), (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).

1886, 5th October: Inspection of the Workhouse Infirmary by F. J. Mouat Esq M.D. Local Government Board Inspector reported, ‘The infirmary was exceptionally clean and well arranged’. Reference: 611/33, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: the F looks like an H in the minutes, but in the Medical Directory for 1886 (London section) his name is recorded as Fred. John Mouat. Other inspections are recorded later in the minutes too.]

1888: ‘Gray Clement Frederick, surgeon & medical officer & public vaccinator No. 1 district Newmarket union & medical officer to workhouse, The Terrace, High street’ listed in Newmarket. Reference: Kelly’s directory of Cambridgeshire… . London: Kelly & Co.; 1888, pg 118. [Note: Gray Frederick Clement, Fyson Ernest Last, Hutchinson Walter, Mead George Borwick, Mead George Owen and Wright John Rowland, are listed separately as just ‘surgeon’ (the retired Robert Fyson is not listed in this commercial section, but is in the private residents section on pg 116).]

1888, 17th May: ‘DEATH OF DR. F. C. GRAY… [see the page on Frederick Gray for full details]. He leaves a widow and family to mourn his loss, the latter including Dr. C. F. Gray, the well-known surgeon of this town.’ Reference: The Newmarket Journal. Saturday May 19 1888: 5.

1889, 22nd January: An early example of two ‘sick notes’ recorded in the Newmarket Union minutes. ‘The following medical certificates were then read viz:- / Newmarket 21 Jany 1889. / This is to certify that… had a severe attack of Rheumatic Fever some years ago from which he has never thoroughly recovered. His wife’s long illness has also been a great strain on his nervous system so that it has rendered him incapable of ever carrying out his duties efficiently. / Clement Gray Surgeon. / Newmarket. / This is to certify that… has for some time been suffering from brain disease which has now taken the form of insanity of an incurable kind rendering her quite unfit for any kind of work.  / Clement Gray, Surgeon / 21st Jany 1889’. Reference: 611/33, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: this is not the only example of such certificates in the minutes, but the first by Clement Gray.]

1889, 18th July: Norman Gray, son of Clement Frederick (surgeon) and Eleanor, (The Terrace, Newmarket), baptised at All Saints’, Newmarket. Reference: Microfiche of Newmarket All Saints’ parish register (fiche 13), (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).

1889, 3rd and 17th September: An early example of a fitness report recorded in the Newmarket Union minutes. ‘The Master having reported that four boys in the Workhouse were desirous of being apprenticed to the sea service was directed to obtain from the Workhouse Medical Officer a report as to the state of health of the boys’. ‘A certificate of the Medical Office [sic] of the Workhouse was laid before the Board and read as to the present state of health of… and that they were well adapted for a sea faring life.’ Reference: 611/34, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: see 1896 below for what we would call a ‘fit note’. i.e. sick note stating fit for some activities.]

1889, September: Regarding a head injury case in Ashley, ‘Dr. Jones, assistant to Dr Gray, of Newmarket, promptly attended… The patient was seen the next day by Dr. Gray’. Reference: Cambridge Daily News. Saturday Sept 14 1889: 3. [Note: John Matthews Jones appears as resident in Newmarket in the 1890 Medical Directory at Carl House, Grafton Street, the only year he appears in Newmarket (the following year he was in Wales). Subsequently, a Dr James Findlay is recorded there in 1892, Sidney Ernest Atkins from 1893 (subsequently near Axminster – see 1894 reference below), and James Percy Grieves in 1895, who subsequently is listed living at Clifton House from 1896 to 1901 – which Clement Gray purchased in 1895 (see below); in 1901 he also appears on the census there (see below also). Dr Atkins was named as assistant to Dr Gray in the Newmarket Union minutes in 1893 (see below) and Dr Greaves [sic] was implied to be his assistant in a 1900 newspaper report (see below). So it seems that after Frederick Gray’s death in 1888 Clement had a series of assistants, first living at Carl House, Grafton Street, then next door to him in Clifton House after he purchased it in 1895. There was also a Bernard Newmarch Molineux there in 1905 (also mentioned in the 1904 Kelly’s Directory. Reference: Kelly’s directory of the counties of Cambridge, Norfolk and Suffolk (with colored maps.) 1904. London: Kelly’s Directories Ltd.; 1904, pgs 188&191 Newmarket section, presumably another assistant – he was in Sudbury in 1906 (according to the Medical Directory).]

1891, 5th/6th April: Clement F. Gray born in Dalston, London, aged 44, ‘General Medical Practitioner’ living at Lushington House, High Street, Newmarket, together with his wife Eleanor, young sons Gilbert C. Gray and Norman Gray, widowed mother Sophia and several servants. Reference: The National Archives, 1891 census.

1893, 26th September: Medical Officers of the Newmarket Union appointed substitutes: ‘Dr. C. F. Gray appoints his assistant Dr. S. E Atkins’ ‘Dr. W. Hutchinson appoints Dr. Gray’. Reference: 2706/1, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: see the September 1889 reference above.]

1894, 8th February: Following an Axminster Board of Guardians meeting it was reported in the local press, ‘APPOINTMENT OF MEDICAL-OFFICER.-… for the parishes of Dalwood, Kilmington, Stockland, and Membury… applicants for the post of Medical-officership were… Mr S E Atkins, of Newmarket, who stated that he had entered into arrangements for the purchase from Mrs. Hodges of her late hus-band’s practice and for taking up residence in Dalwood if elected… Only Mr. Atkins received more than one vote, and he was elected by 21 votes’. Reference: The Devon and Exeter Daily Gazette. Friday Feb 9 1894: 8. [Note: see the September 1889 reference above.]

1895, October: ‘Dr. C. F. Gray’ donated towards the building of the new chapel at the Workhouse. Reference: The Bury and Norwich Post. Tuesday Oct 1 1895: 7.

1895, 11th October: Conveyance of Clifton House from Mrs Caroline Daley to Clement F. Gray Esq. Reference: In collection RH114/013, (Cambridgeshire County Record Office [called Cambridgeshire Archives], Cambridge – subsequently relocated to Ely). [Note: I originally saw this collection at a solicitors’ office in London thanks to the Directors of the Lushington House Investment Company (see the page on Lushington House), and subsequently arranged for it to be deposited in the Cambridgeshire Archives where it now has this reference number.]

1896, 18th May: Example of what we would call a ‘fit note’ (cf. 1889 above) by ‘C.F. Gray Medical Practitioner’. ‘I have ascertained that such person is maimed through amputation of foot so that the nature of the work or trade which such person is fit to perform or exercise is restricted in manner following viz:- Cannot perform active out door work’. Reference: 611/34, Newmarket Union minutes (19th May 1896), (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: on the basis of this the boy in question was apprenticed to a Newmarket tailor for 5 years funded by the Newmarket Union. It’s also of interest that he can be seen in Newmarket on the 1911 census working as a tailor, married aged 29, with a note in the margin to say that his foot was amputated aged 12. In the same household was his 39 year old brother in law, a blind piano tuner.]

1900, 16th January: Newspaper report regarding a fatal riding accident, although interestingly the cause of death was tetanus: ‘He was removed to the Rous Memorial Hospital on a stretcher, where Drs. Gray and Greaves [sic] and two other doctors were called in, as he appeared to be in a serious condition… skilled nursing by the hospital staff and the efforts of Dr. Gray and his assistant… he was suffering from a compound fracture of the right leg… tetanus set in… death occurred from this cause’. Reference: The Bury and Norwich Post. Tuesday Jan 16 1900: 8. [Note: see comments in September 1889 regarding his assistants.], [Note also, the coroner involved with the case was George Owen Mead, who himself was dead within two months of this report!]

1901, 31st March / 1st April: Clement F. Gray born in Dalston, London, aged 48 [sic he was 54], ‘surgeon’, living in the High Street, Newmarket, with his wife and 11 year old son Norman. Reference: The National Archives, 1901 census. [Note: Gilbert was aged 15 and away at school.], [Note also, James P. Grieves his assistant and family are shown living next door (in what would have been Clifton House – see the 1889, 1895 and 1900 references above), described as physician and surgeon.]

1904, 9th August: ‘The Clerk submitted a report by Dr Gray the Medical Officer of the Workhouse approving the New Dietry Tables for use in the Workhouse…’ Reference: 611/39, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: in an age when medicines were of very limited efficacy medics paid great attention to the diet of their patients. Later, in 1912, in response to another inspection (see 1886 above) suggesting that too much milk was being used, Clement Gray responded, ‘I place a very great value on milk. It would be detrimental and most unwise to reduce the quantity of milk in the sick wards’. Reference: 611/42 (8th October 1912). – see William Henry Day on this topic also, in 1873, and a section on the page about the Newmarket Union. Good nutrition of course remains essential today, but it’s easy to forget in the midst of so many medicinal options.]

1905, 7th February: ‘The Medical Officer of the Workhouse recommended that an alteration be made in the Dietaries for children as set out in the medical report book when it was resolved that the alteration as recommended be adopted’. Reference: 611/39, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).

1905, 27th June: ‘The Medical Officer of the Workhouse reported that an additional nurse was required in the Infirmary.’ Reference: 611/39, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).

1906: ‘GRAY, CLEMENT FREDK., Newmarket, Cambs. (Tel.8) – M.R.C.S.Eng. and L.S.A. 1870; (St.Bart); Surg. Rous Memor. Hosp.; Med. Off. and pub. Vacc. 1st and 3rd Dists. and Workh. Newmarket Union; Mem. Brit. Med. Assoc. Contrib. “Case of Cæsarian Section in which Mother Survived,” Brit. Med. Journ. 1883.’ Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1906.

1906: HARVIE, JAMES, Lushington House, Newmarket, Cambs.– L.R.C.P., L.R.C.S. Ed., L.F.P.S. Glas. 1904; (Univ. Glas.). Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1908. [Note: presumably he was another assistant (see the September 1889 reference above). He was in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire in the 1907 Directory.]

1908, 26th May: It was noted in the Newmarket Union minutes that Dr Woollett had been required to attend a midwifery case in Ashley, outside of his poor law district. It ‘required a long attendance and the use of instruments’. Reference: 611/41, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: this was part of Clement Gray’s district; it’s not known why he could not attend the case instead. Perhaps he was sick or otherwise engaged?]

1909:GRAY, Gilbert ClementLushington house, Newmarket…’ Reference: The Medical Register. London: General Medical Council; 1909.

1910:GRAY, GILBERT CLEMENT, Lushington House, New-market (Nat.Tel.8) – M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P.Lond. 1908; (St. Bart.); Ho. Surg. Roy. Free Hosp.’ Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1910. [Note: from 1913 Gilbert gave his address as Brackley House, then as Lushington House again from 1922, and Alton House from 1926. Likely he changed from giving his residential address to practice address in 1922.]

1911, January: The Newmarket Journal reported remarks made at the Newmarket Union board of guardians meeting that someone had ‘heard complaints that a consumptive got the same medicine as a man with a broken leg’, but with the added remarks ‘No doubt this statement was very much exaggerated’ and from someone else, ‘I am sure it is. Dr. Gray is the most conscientious man in the world, and would give them all he had got if they needed it.’ Clement Gray wrote to the board objecting that this initial remark was absolutely untrue. They minuted the following response from the person who had made the remarks: ‘No one knows better than myself how skilfully, how untiringly, how self-sacrificing your work is done for the poor in Newmarket, both in the Infirmary and out of it. What medical science is capable of doing is done by you without any regard for your personal trouble and cost’ and the minutes added, ‘It was unanimously resolved that this Board wish to express their continued confidence in Dr Gray as Medical Officer of the workhouse’. Moreover, the Newmarket Journal published a huge response a couple of weeks later, under the heading ‘The Medical Officer eulogised’ setting the record straight, ending with the conclusion, ‘they were all of one opinion as to Dr. Gray’s services being everything they should be, and felt that thanks were due to him for the way in which he treated the poor both in and outside that House. The motion was carried, amid applause.’ References: The Newmarket Journal. Saturday Jan 7 1911: 5, and 611/41, Newmarket Union minutes (17th January 1911), (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds) and The Newmarket Journal. Saturday Jan 21 1911: 5.

1911, 2nd/3rd April: Clement Frederick Gray born in Dalston, London, aged 64, ‘Medical Practitioner’, living in Lushington House, High Street, Newmarket, together with his wife Eleanor, two sons Gilbert Clement Gray ‘Medical Practitioner’ and Norman Gray ‘Medical Student’, and two servants. Reference: The National Archives, 1911 census. [Note: this reference has special significance for talkingdust.net. In the spring of 2013 all I knew about the medical history of Newmarket was that many years ago our practice had been ‘on The Terrace up the other end of the High Street’ and that several of the doctors had been called Gray, all from the same family. I knew none of their first names. An 83 year old patient ended our consultation with the interesting aside that she’d been a patient of the practice since she was born. Interested I asked who the doctor had been when she was a little girl and she replied ‘Dr Norman Gray’, emphasizing the Norman, for obvious reasons. Fascinated by this I sent a message out to all staff, wondering whether anyone knew of a longer standing patient (subsequently we found several in their 90s). A few days later a receptionist showed me a copy of this 1911 census entry that she’d found. The obvious thing to do was to look further back in the same house – the digging had started and talkingdust.net is the result!], [Note also, see the page on the Grays for an image.]

1912, 22nd October: Clement Gray resigned from his Newmarket Union roles. Reference: 611/42, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: after initially expressing an interest in filling these roles, Gilbert Gray did not apply, and they were filled by John Hansby Maund (District 1) and Ernest Crompton (Workhouse). Reference: 611/42 (17th December 1912). Sidney Winslow Woollett was the only other applicant, who was already Medical Officer for District 2.]

1912, 31st December: ‘It was unanimously resolved… that the Guardians desire to place on record their appreciation of the faithful services rendered by Dr C.F. Gray as Medical Officer of the workhouse and No1 District during the long period of 39 1/4 years and that the clerk be directed to write to Dr Gray in suitable terms.’ Reference: 611/42, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).

1913, 28th January: ‘having regard to the excellent services rendered by Dr Gray during the whole period of 39 years the committee resolved to recommend that one year be added… that Dr Gray be awarded a maximum pension… based upon the full period of 40 years service allowed’. Reference: 611/42, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: this decision is minuted again on 25th March. Reference: 611/42.]

1913: A silver salver inscribed: ‘Presented to / Dr. & Mrs. Gray / BY THE MEMBERS OF THE / ALL SAINTS BAND OF HOPE / NEWMARKET / AS A TOKEN OF THEIR ESTEEM / AFTER / 32 YEARS TEMPERANCE WORK / 1881-1913 [ / indicates new line]. Reference: image of the salver supplied to me in 2013 by descendants of the Grays.

1915:GRAY, Norman, Lushington House, Newmarket – B.A. Camb. 1912; M.R.C.S,,[sic] L.R.C.P. Lond. 1914; (St. Bart.)’. Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1915. [Note: from 1916 Norman gave his address as Brackley House, like Gilbert (see 1910 reference above), with Clement, Gilbert and Norman all describing themselves as Gray and Sons (see Clement’s entry below). In 1920 Norman was back listing Lushington House (possibly changing to listing his practice address), until 1926, when Gilbert, Norman and Hendley (see 1925 and 1926 entries below) started listing Alton House (Gray and Hendley). It appears Clement might have retired in 1926, since he stoped listing Gray and Sons or any other roles (the Rous Memorial Hospital but not the Newmarket Union having been mentioned in 1925). It’s not until 1928 that his entry actually mentions ‘retired’ though – see below.]

1916: ‘GRAY, Clement Fredk., Newmarket, Cambs. (Gray & Sons; Tel.8) – M.R.C.S.Eng. and L.S.A. 1870; (St.Bart); Sen. Surg. Rous Memor. Hosp. Author, “Case of Cæsarian Section in which Mother Survived,” B.Med.Jl. 1883.’ Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1916.

1917, 24th February: On the death of Ernest Last Fyson it was reported, ‘During his last illness he was attended by Dr. C. F. Gray (an old friend as well as a pro-fessional confrére), who also took charge of his practice for some months.’ Reference: The Newmarket Journal. Saturday Feb 24 1917: 3. [Note: it seems likely therefore that the Fysons’ practice was absorbed into the Grays’ at this point, who likely had the capacity now being three.], [Note also however, a notice appeared in the paper the following week to say, ‘We are requested by the relatives of the late Dr. Fyson to state that throughout his illness Dr. Ernest Crompton was most assiduous in his attendance upon him, visiting him night and day.’ Reference: The Newmarket Journal. Saturday Mar 3 1917: 2. This appears to be an addition rather than correction? There’s nothing to suggest Ernest Crompton’s practice was expanding at this point. In fact he retired due to ill health a few years later and his practice also appears to cease at that point.]

1917, 3rd March: On the death of his son’s wife it was stated in the paper, ‘Mrs Gray was the wife of Dr. Norman Gray, who, during the last two or three years, has been associated in practice with his father, Dr. Clement F. Gray. There is probably no man in New-market who is held in such general affection and esteem as Dr. Gray, sen.’ Reference: The Newmarket Journal. Saturday Mar 3 1917: 3. [Note: see the pages on Norman Gray and the Grays for more detail.]

1917, 24th July: ‘A letter was read from Dr S.W. Woollett stating that he had again taken up Military duties and that Drs C.F. Gray and C.G. Gray [sic] would carry out his duties as District Medical Officer during his absence.’ Reference: 611/43, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).

1917, 13th November: Clement and Gilbert Gray wrote to the Newmarket Union about the many difficult and trying midwifery cases that they were attending in poor people, often in the middle of the night, having been called by the midwife for help, knowing that there was hardly any possibility of being paid, and suggesting that this was the Newmarket Union’s responsibility. On 11th December a system of midwifery fees under such circumstances was agreed. Reference: 611/43, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).

1921, 30th September: Conveyance of Godolphin House from Capt. E. F. E. Hammond to C. F. Gray. Reference: In collection RH114/013, (Cambridgeshire County Record Office [called Cambridgeshire Archives], Cambridge – subsequently relocated to Ely). [Note: see comments above regarding this collection], [Note also, it appears that following this purchase the property was divided into three sections. The eastern part of the building remains as Godolphin House today (on the corner of The Avenue), the western part was sold to The Freemasons, whose Lodge is still there today (details of this transaction and a diagram of their section are in RH114/013), and the original garden of Godolphin House was added to the Lushington House property. Then the Grays built Alton House in part of this new extended garden of Lushington House.]

1924, 12th March: Plans for Alton House. A notice with the plans reveal that they were for Dr C. F. Gray, Lushington House, Newmarket, and described as ‘Home with surgeries etc. attached’. There are three sheets of diagrams/drawings, all labelled ‘House High Street Newmarket for Dr. Gray’. Upstairs contained the bedrooms and bathroom etc. Downstairs in the main house were four rooms (kitchen, drawing room, dining room and interestingly ‘waiting room’). A corridor past the waiting room led into the main surgery area, which consisted of another waiting room, a dispensary, two consulting rooms and a mysterious, surprisingly large, ‘electrical room’ (19 1/2 feet by 10 feet). Reference: EF506/6/1/19/666, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: see the page on Alton House Surgery for an image.]

1925:HENDLEY, Harold Jas. Holbein, Lushington House, Newmarket, Suffolk – M.R.C.S. Eng., L.R.C.P. Lond. 1921; (St. Bart.); late Res. Med. Off. Jenny Lind Hosp. Childr. Norw.; Ho. Surg. & Intern. Midw. Asst. St. Bart. Hosp.’ Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1925.

1925: Under ‘Newmarket’… then  ‘Private Residents’… ‘Gray Clement Frederick, Lushington house. T N 336 / Gray Gilbert Clement, Grasmere, The Avenue / Gray Norman, Alton house, High st / Hendley Harold James H., B.A. Alton house, High street. T N 8’… then under ‘Commercial’… ‘Gray Clement Frederick M.R.C.S.Eng., L.S.A. surgeon, & medical officer to the Newmarket & Moulton Joint Hospital Board, Lushington house, High st. T N 336 / Gray Gilbert Clement M.R.C.S.Eng., L.R.C.P.Lond. surgeon (firm, Grays & Hendley), Alton house, High street. T N 8 / Gray Norman M.A., M.D., B.Ch., M.R.C.S.Eng., L.R.C.P.Lond. surgeon (firm, Grays & Hendley, Alton house, High street. T N 8 / Grays & Hendley, surgeons, Alton house, High st. T N 8 / Hendley Harold James H., B.A., M.R.C.S.Eng., L.R.C.P.Lond surgeon (firm, Grays & Hendley), Alton house, High street. T N 8’. Reference: Kelly’s directory of the Counties of Cambridge, Norfolk, Suffolk & Essex (with coloured maps) 1925-6. London: Kelly’s Directories Ltd.; 1925, pg 201-210. [Note: Norman Gray lived at Alton House as his private residence as well as it being the surgery. It appears Harold Hendley perhaps lived there too, unless he was giving his work address in both parts of the directory?]

1926:HENDLEY, Harold Jas. Holbein, Alton House, New-market, Suffolk (Grays & Hendley; Tel. Newmkt. 8) – M.R.C.S. Eng., L.R.C.P. Lond. 1921; (St. Bart.); late Res. Med. Off. Jenny Lind Hosp. Childr. Norw.; Ho. Surg. & Intern. Midw. Asst. St. Bart. Hosp.’. Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1926.

1928: ‘GRAY, CLEMENT FREDK. (retired), Newmarket, Cambs. (Tel. 59) – M.R.C.S.Eng. & L.S.A. 1870; (St.Bart) Author, “Case of Cæsarian Section in which Mother Survived,” Brit. Med. Journ. 1883.’ Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1928.

1943, 23rd January: Report and comments in the local newspaper on the death of Clement Gray. Under the heading, ‘Death of Dr. C. F. Gray / Newmarket’s Great Loss / Friend and Physician to Two Generations’ was a long report extending to three columns. Aside from the key extracts in the main text above, some other particularly relevant details from the report include that he ‘passed away at his residence, Lushington House, High Street, Newmarket, on Saturday’ [sic – in fact it was Sunday 16th January]. It continues, ‘He had attained the great age of 96 years, and had been in feeble health for a considerable time. / Dr. C. F. Gray was the son of the late Dr. Frederick Clement Gray, of this town, who died in 1888, and, after obtaining his medical qualifications, joined his father in practice.’ Regarding his Fever Hospital role, it mentions that he ‘was succeeded in that office, several years ago, by one of his sons, Dr. Norman Gray.’ It also mentions that his wife had died on June 29th, 1929, and goes on to say that their ‘two sons, Dr. Gilbert Gray and Dr. Norman Gray, both en-tered their father’s profession, and, upon gaining their qualifica-tions, joined him in practice… Several years ago Dr. Gray retired and handed over the practice to his sons, by whom, with their partners, it is now carried on. During the last few years of his life, Dr. Gray was practically confined to his house, but he, nevertheless, con-tinued to take an interest in the organisations for which he had done so much during his active years [again see the main text above]… The funeral took place on Wednesday… the lesson, taken from Revelations, chapter 21… / The principal mourners were Dr. Gilbert Gray and Dr. Nor-man Gray (sons)… Among the many others pres-ent were… Miss Langridge (matron, Rous Memorial Hospital), Dr. Randall, Dr. N. C. Simpson,… / Miss E. A. Hambling (representing the N.B.W.T.A.U.) [ = National British Womens’ Total Abstinence Union], Mr Gil-bert Watson, Mrs. Gilbert Wat-son, J.P. (representing the Brit-ish and Foreign Bible Society),… others re-presenting old members of Dr. Gray’s Bible Class),…’ Reference: The Newmarket Journal. Saturday Jan 23 1943: 7 (report), 6 (comments – see main text above). [Note: see the Why talkingdust.net? page regarding the significance of this report and comments to the author of this website and the very existence of this project, which partly at least accounts for their prominence and emphasis on this page.], [Note also, interestingly 15 years earlier the same notes and comments section of the Journal used the phrase ‘No man has more oppor-tunities of serving his fellows than a medi-cal man’ on the death of Sidney Winslow Woollett – see the page on Sidney Winslow Woollett for details.]

1947: Memorial ‘REMEMBER / CLEMENT FREDERICK GRAY / BELOVED PHYSICIAN / FORTY YEARS CHURCH WARDEN / AND ELEANOR HIS WIFE / SERVANTS OF JESUS CHRIST / THIS PULPIT WAS DEDICATED / BY THEIR SONS / 1947’ ( / indicates new line). Reference: Carving inside the pulpit of All Saints’ church, Newmarket (from a photograph taken by myself 24th November 2013 – and see more recent image from 2019 above). [Note: see image above.], [Note also, Clement Frederick Gray is buried in Newmarket Cemetery under a large cross not far from the entrance on the right hand side, with and alongside other family members – see the page on Frederick Clement Gray for an image.]

Some other sources consulted include:-

Newmarket Union Minutes 1872-1930. Reference: 611/28-611/46, DC1/4/1 and 2706/1, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: these minutes contain over 500 references to Clement Frederick Gray, so only the key entries of interest are highlighted in the references above. Many of those not included are only about routine payments, some others are included on the page about the Newmarket Union instead, but others are not included anywhere as a line has to be drawn somewhere!]

Suffolk Medical Biographies. Profile for Gray, Clement Frederick. http://www.suffolkmedicalbiographies.co.uk/Profile.asp?Key=1764 (originally accessed pre October 2013). [Note: at the time of writing (July 2017), this website had very little on Clement Frederick Gray; it had the marriage of Emily in 1881, mistakenly calling her the daughter not sister of Clement, i.e. she was the daughter of Frederick, and the earliest supposed reference in March 1871 was in fact to Dr. Gray, therefore likely Frederick also.], [Note also, see comments regarding this website on the Francis Greene page.] 

Honan RF. The Gray Matter. Adelaide: Lutheran Publishing House; 1987. [Note: this book charts the Gray family from old family records going back to 1437 (!) and includes lots of detail regarding Australian branches descending from Frederick Clement Gray’s brothers, but it does include a small section on the Newmarket medical Grays, including Pictures of Alton House and Lushington House taken in 1985. I have used this source for the wider Gray family structure.]

Shops History Newmarket. http://www.newmarketshops.info/index.html. [Note: newmarketshops.info has been supplied with information regarding the medical history of Newmarket by the author of talkingdust.net since August 2013 (see footnotes on some of the pages). Both websites continue to be developed, and in this sense are mutually symbiotic.]

The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1872-1943. [Note: see above references for full 1872, 1906, 1916 and 1928 entries (and James Harvie 1906; Gilbert 1910; Norman 1915; Hendley 1925&26).] [Note also: this publication has been known by various titles over the years. Initially it just covered London, but from 1847 it had a wider remit, being variously known as the London and Provincial Medical Directory, The Medical Directories, The Medical Directory, etc., essentially the same work with minor variations and developments. It is usually referred to as The Medical Directory (as opposed to The Medical Register), so that is how it’s consistently referred to on talkingdust.net.]

The Medical Register. London: General Medical Council; 1872ff. [Note: Clement Gray does not appear in the register until 1874, but in that and subsequent registers he is recorded as having registered on 1st April 1871 – see comment on the 1872 directory reference above.]

Note: For published material referenced on this website see the ‘Acknowledgements for resources of published material’ section on the ‘Usage &c.’ page. The sources used for original unpublished documents are noted after each individual reference. Any census records are referenced directly to The National Archives, since images of these are so ubiquitous on microfilm and as digital images that they almost function like published works. Census records are covered by the ‘Open Government Licence’ as should be other such public records (see the ‘Copyright and related issues’ section on the ‘Usage &c.’ page for which references constitute public records, and any other copyright issues more generally such as fair dealing/use etc.).