Frederick Clement Gray was born in Alton, Hampshire, on the 21st August 1812, to Frederick Gray and his wife Mary Ann (née Clement). His father was a general merchant dealing in coal, corn and hops (which they also farmed), but he was particularly known as a cheesemonger too. His grandfather had been similar, but in Newbury, Berkshire, and was also the mayor there. There don’t appear to have been any other medics in the family before Frederick. He had numerous siblings, including three brothers who emigrated to Australia in the mid-19th century (see also The Grays).
In 1827, at the age of 14, Frederick Gray was bound apprentice to Thomas Charles Woodward, a notable surgeon / medical practitioner in Alton at the time. This was the standard age at which to start such apprenticeships. He went up to London for lectures and some further experience at St Bartholomew’s Hospital, qualifying with the standard for the time LSA MRCS qualifications in 1834 (see The history of medical treatments, training, qualifications and regulation). A couple of years later he gained a standard ‘midwifery’ qualification (i.e. obstetrics) from Edinburgh, and at some point even an MD from Jena in Germany! The latter appears perhaps to have been obtained in 1842, involving a dissertation on Cæsarean sections.
He seems to have practised initially in London, marrying Sophia Brown of Kingston in 1843, when his residence was recorded as Hornsey, North London, near Highgate. He was in partnership there with someone called Peter Brendon as ‘Surgeons and Apothecaries’ until 1844. The records suggest that he remained in and around London during the 1840s, with children born in Woodford and Dalston (his only son being Clement Frederick Gray born in 1846, who later followed him into practice at Newmarket). By the late 1840s Frederick Gray and family had moved to Sheerness on the Isle of Sheppey in Kent, where he had two daughters (see The Grays for more family details). He was Surgeon to the Coastguard in Sheppey, a role he continued until 1859 (presumably he was in general practice there as well, this being just one of his roles). Then from 1859 he worked in Melbourn, Cambridgeshire; he’s first recorded attending a patient there in the July of that year, but from 1862 appears to have moved again, this time to Holmes Chapel in Cheshire. He’s recorded there in the Medical Directories from 1862 until 1866, although oddly is shown as retaining his Cambridgeshire poor law Union roles too, despite taking up a similar post in Cheshire – it would not be possible to fulfil both of these roles with such a geographical distance, so likely this represents an editorial error in the Medical Directories (he was not in the 1864 Post Office Directory for Melbourn, so likely was not there).
Finally, after all this mobility, in 1866/7 Frederick Gray and family settled in Newmarket, as late as his mid 50s, where he was to stay for the rest of his life, and where his family would play a major role in the medical history of Newmarket for over a century (again see The Grays). It’s interesting and encouraging to consider that he didn’t settle into what was to become his main purpose and legacy in life until after the age of 50, although obviously the roots and preparation can be traced back decades.
Frederick Gray succeeded to the practice of William Henry Day, who left Newmarket for London in 1866/7 (see The Rookery Practice chain). The practice would have been sold/bought at that time, adverts for practices regularly appearing in the medical press during the period, and there were even agencies involved in some cases. The practice had been at Lushington House from 1861/2 (when William Henry Day moved there) where it remained until 1925 (members of the Gray family continued to live in Lushington House even beyond that, after the practice moved to Alton House, which they built next door). Some pencil notes on the back of the Lushington House Abstract of Title from 1875 record the succession from 9 years earlier, from William Henry Day to Frederick Gray. The property was leased from the Lushingtons initially, until Frederick Gray purchased it in 1875.
The first mention of Frederick Gray in Newmarket was when he joined the Farmers’ Club in October 1866 (see image above right). At that time the other three practices in town were those of George Borwick Mead, Richard Faircloth, and Robert Fyson in partnership with Samuel Gamble. His apparent rather energetic, dynamic character soon became evident. In the March of 1867 he offered his services gratuitously to both the Board of Health generally and regarding two specific cases under the care of the Newmarket Union, who otherwise faced travelling to London for surgery (suggesting that he was particularly skilled in surgery – or very confident – likely both!). At his death in 1888 the Newmarket Journal reported that he ‘came to Newmarket to practise about 22 years ago and soon earned a reputation for skill’. Although still regarded as a ‘stranger’ in town by some in March 1867, he narrowly missed obtaining the role of Medical Officer to District 3 of the Newmarket Union that same month. He failed to obtain the Medical Officer to the Workhouse role the following year as well, and had no further dealings with the Newmarket Union himself. However, his son and later business partner Clement Frederick Gray took on both of these roles (and more) a few years later. Clement was first his apprentice, from 1863 (interestingly before their arrival in Newmarket), then joined his father in practice in the town post qualification, first mentioned on the 1871 census (see the page on Clement Frederick Gray for full details).
From 1867 onwards various references to Frederick Gray’s medical activities in Newmarket are preserved in newspaper reports, including him attending a horse and carriage accident between Ashley and Gazeley, and a shooting accident in Stetchworth (see the references below, and an image of the article about the shooting accident on the left). However, the most noteworthy medical event that Frederick Gray was involved with comes from the extraordinary account of a cæsarean section performed by Clement Gray in 1883, with his father in attendance, no doubt providing support and advice given his experience and apparent MD thesis on that subject (click here for the full account). This incident also shows an interesting degree of co-operation with other practices: the Fysons’ practice and that of Walter Hutchinson, who acted as the anaesthetist (at that stage Walter Hutchinson possibly was still in partnership with John Rowland Wright, who was an ex assistant of Robert Fyson mentioned above, but who’d succeeded to the practice of Richard Faircloth in 1877/8, also mentioned above – Hutchinson and Wright diverged about the time of this operation, see the Oakfield and Orchard House practice chains respectively for more details on that). The Meads, the other main practice in town at the time were not involved with the cæsarean section (their practice no longer exists). As mentioned above, the Grays however were part of The Rookery practice chain (see also The practice chains of Newmarket for an overview of how the various practices in Newmarket evolved over time, and a summary with diagram on the home page).
Interestingly also, from 1868 onwards Frederick Gray was very active campaigning for a cottage hospital to be established in Newmarket. The other medics in town were not so keen on the idea, but eventually he did see a cottage hospital set up, in the form of the Rous Memorial Hospital in 1880 (see the page on the Rous Memorial Hospital for more details on that institution and his campaign).
Finally, Frederick Clement Gray died on 17th May 1888, at 75 years of age. A report in The Newmarket Journal suggests that he’d been unwell for some time, although there is nothing to suggest that he ever officially retired. Clearly he was still active to some degree aged 70 at the 1883 cæsarean section mentioned above. None of the various directories (medical or trade) indicate that he was retired, including the 1888 Kelly’s Directory, in which he appears in the commercial section as ‘physician & surgeon’, unlike the retired Robert Fyson who just appears in the residential section.
Frederick Clement Gray is buried with and alongside other members of his family under a cross near the entrance to Newmarket Cemetery (see image on the right, where his name appears on the front facing aspect of the middle tear of the cross in the foreground.
Image 1: Cambridge Chronicle and University Journal. Saturday Oct 20 1866: 8 (cropped); image © The British Library Board, all rights reserved, reproduced with kind permission of The British Newspaper Archive, www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk. [Note: clicking here leads to the specific page on their website, but requires logging in to it.]
Image 2: The Cambridge Independent Press. Saturday 14th Sept 1867: 8 (cropped); image © The British Library Board, all rights reserved, reproduced with kind permission of The British Newspaper Archive, www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk. [Note: clicking here leads to the specific page on their website, but requires logging in to it.]
Image 3: Photograph taken in 2013, by the author of talkingdust.net.
Note: see comments regarding images and copyright © etc. on the Usage &c. page as well.
1834, 6th February: Frederick Clement Gray passed the LSA examination, apprenticed to ‘Thomas Charles Woodward’. Reference: Court of Examiners Candidates’ Qualification Entry Book, The Society of Apothecaries Archives, Apothecaries’ Hall, Black Friars Lane, London EC4V 6EJ. [Note: the apprenticeship is recorded as having started on 27th January 1827, he started attending lectures in January 1832, and was at St Bartholomew’s Hospital for 12 months.], [Note also, Thomas Charles Woodward, at his death in 1853, was said to have been ‘engaged in the practice of his Profession at Alton, where he earned himself great celebrity as an accomplished surgeon and successful Medical Practitioner. Subsequently, from ill-health, he was compelled to leave Alton, and for some twenty years has been a resident either in or near Andover’. Reference: The Medical Times and Gazette 1853;7:543.]
1834, 6th February: ‘APOTHECARIES’ HALL. NAMES of gentlemen to whom the Court of Examiners granted Certificates of Quali-fication on Thursday, February 6th… Frederick Clement Gray. Alton…’ Reference: The London Medical and Surgical Journal 1834;5(107):96.
1834, 28th March: Gave a statement in a trial at The Old Bailey regarding his handkerchief being stolen ‘On Good Friday I was walking in Regent-street with my brother, Charles Henry Gray – my handkerchief was in my brother’s pocket – I saw the prisoner take it out of his pocket – there were five or six persons with the prisoner – he ran off, and I pursued him into the Haymarket, crying, “Stop thief,” till he was taken by the officer – this handkerchief was dropped in the way he ran – I did not see it drop; but I can swear I saw him take it from my brother’s pocket – this is it.’ Interestingly the thief got 9 months imprisonment; the handkerchief was worth 2s. 6d. Reference: Online image of the original proceedings (https://www.oldbaileyonline.org/images.jsp?doc=183404100028) at: Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 7.2, accessed 12 June 2017), April 1834, trial of RICHARD TAYLOR (t18340410-34). [Note: click here for the source.]
1843, 7th Janaury: Marriage of Frederick Clement Gray of Hornsey to Sophia Brown of Kingston, at Kingston All Saints, Surrey. Reference: Online image of Kingston All Saints’ marriage register held at the Surrey History Centre, ancestry.co.uk (accessed 26th June 2017). [Note: this is Kingston-upon-Thames.]
1844, 20th May: ‘NOTICE is hereby given, that the Partnership here-tofore subsisting between us the undersigned, Frederick Clement Gray and Peter Brendon, as Surgeons and Apothecaries, at Highgate, in the county of Middlesex, under the firm of Gray and Brendon, was, on the 20th day of May now last past, dissolved by mutual consent; and that all debts due to and from the said firm will be received and paid by the said Peter Brendon, who will continue to carry on the said business on his own account.- Witness our hands this 31st day of August 1844.’ Reference: The London Gazette. Sept 3 1844; Issue 20379: 3056.
1850: ‘GRAY, FREDERICK CLEMENT, Sheer-ness, Kent – M.R.C.S. and L.S.A. 1834; M.D. Jena; Surg. to the Coast Guard, Isle of Sheppy.’ Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1850. [Note: he is not in the first few directories, perhaps because they were a new thing and he was not sure of the need to be in them? He remains listed in Sheerness up to and including 1859, then appears in Melbourn (see 1860 below).]
1851, 30th/31st March: Fredk C. Gray born in Alton, Hampshire, aged 38, ‘surgeon M.R.C.S. & L.S.A.’, residing in Sheerness on the Isle of Sheppey, Kent, together with his wife Sophia, children Emily, Jane, Clement and Ellen and three servants. Reference: The National Archives, 1851 census. [Note: Emily was aged 7, born in Highgate, Middlesex, Jane aged 6, born in Woodford, Essex, Clement aged 4, born in Dalston, Middlesex, Ellen aged 3, born in Sheerness, Kent.]
1859, 22nd July: Under ‘MELBOURN’, ‘Sudden Death – On the morning of Friday, the 22nd inst., Abraham West, who was in his eighty-sixth year, was in an allotment at the back of the village, cleaning turnips, when he dropped down dead. Mr. Gray, surgeon, was immediately on the spot, but life was extinct. We understand deceased has previously been suffering from disease of the heart, which there is no doubt was the cause of death. Reference: The Cambridge Independent Press. Saturday Jul 30 1859: 5.
1860: ‘GRAY, FREDERICK CLEMENT, Mel-bourn, Cambs.- M.R.C.S. Eng. and L.S.A. 1834; M.D. Jena; L.M. Edin. 1836; Surg. Melbourn Dist. Royston Union, and Wimpole Dist. Caxton Union; late Surg. Coast Guard, Isle of Sheppey. Author of “Dissert. Med. Inaug. de Operatione Cæsariana,” 1842.’ Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1860. [Note: he remains in Melbourn in the 1861 directory, then from 1862 to 1866 inclusive he gives his address as Holmes Chapel, Cheshire (see 1862 below).]
1861, January: ‘MELBOURN.- Sudden Death.- On Saturday, a striking sustance [sic] of the uncertainty of human life occurred here, by the sudden death of a labourer, named Joseph Head. It appears that the deceased had been suffer-ing from disease of the heart for several years past, but was in his usual health on the above morning, and had attended to his ordinary duties in the farmyard, till between seven and eight o’clock, when he was found in a sitting position, and apparently in a lifeless state. Mr. Gray, surgeon, was at once sent for, but the vital spark had fled. The deceased (who resided at an off-hand farm, in the occupation of Mr. Peter Spark) was a trustworthy servant, and had been in the capacity of foreman on that farm for several years.’ Reference: The Cambridge Independent Press. Saturday Jan 19 1861: 8.
1861, 7/8th April: Frederick C. Gray born in Alton, Hampshire, aged 48, with his qualifications listed and the abbreviation ‘GP’, residing in Melbourn High Street, Cambridgeshire, together with his wife Sophia, children Emily, Jane, Clement and Florence (described as surgeon’s wife, daughter and sons), and some visitors and servants. Reference: The National Archives, 1861 census. [Note: Emily was aged 17, born in Highgate, Middlesex, Jane aged 16, born in Woodford, Essex, Clement aged 14, born in Dalston, Middlesex, Florence aged 3, born in Sheerness, Kent.]
1862: ‘GRAY, FREDERICK CLEMENT, Holmes Chapel, Middlewich, Chesh.- M.R.C.S. Eng. and L.S.A. 1834; M.D. Jena; L.M. Edin. 1836; Surg. Melbourn Dist. Royston Union, and Wimpole Dist. Caxton Union; late Surg. Coast Guard, Isle of Sheppey. Author of “Dissert. Med. Inaug. de Operatione Cæsariana,” 1842.’ Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1862. [Note: this entry reads as if he still has the Melbourn and Caxton Union roles, but presumably that could not have been the case living in Cheshire!], [Note also, this entry is marked as him not having returned his annual circular, which is odd given that the entry has changed?], [Note also, his entry remains essentially the same except from 1863 ‘Church Hulme Dist. Chester Union’ is added, but still the Cambridgeshire roles are not removed, up to and including 1866, then from 1867 he’s recorded as being in Newmarket (see below).]
1864: Not in the Melbourn section of the Post Office Directory, as appears to have left for Cheshire. Reference: The Post Office Directory of Cambridgeshire… . London: Kelly and Co.; 1864, pgs 66-67.
1866, 16th October: First mention of Frederick Clement Gray in Newmarket: ‘Newmarket Farmers’ Club.- An adjourned meeting of the members of the Farmers Club Committee was held at the Golden Lion Inn, on Tuesday last… Dr. Gray, of Newmarket, was elected a member of the association.’ Reference: Cambridge Chronicle and University Journal. Saturday Oct 20 1866: 8. [Note: see image above.]
1867: ‘GRAY, FREDERICK C., Newmarket, Cambs- M.R.C.S. Eng. and L.S.A. 1834; M.D. Jena; L.M. Edin. 1836; (St. Barthol.); late Surg. Coast-guard, Isle of Sheppey. Author of “Dissert. Med. Inaug. de Operatione Cæsariana,” 1842.’ Contrib. to Lancet, 1855, &c. Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1867. [Note: his first Newmarket entry in the Medical Register is also 1867, but from its inception in 1859 up to and including 1866 his address is given as Melbourn (see 1860 and 1862 Directory entries above) – perhaps he didn’t update his Medical Register entry until he moved to Newmarket?]
1867, 19th February: Dr Mead (Medical Officer for District 3) recommended that two children from Ashley ‘suffering from spinal disease’ be ‘removed’ (i.e. referred) to the ‘National Orthopaedic Hospital Great Portland St., Regents Park, London’ and ‘the clerk was directed to ascertain from the secretary of the hospital, in the event of their removal, the cost of their maintenance there and any other information requisite for procuring their admission as in-patients’ (but Dr Gray stepped in – see 19th March below). Reference: 611/25, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1867, 4th March: Dr Gray offered his services to the Newmarket Board of Health free of charge. Reference: EF506/1/2, Newmarket Board of Health minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: it was decided to approach Dr Fyson, the existing person in the role, to see if he would make the same offer. The minutes of 18th March record that he declined and so the post was offered to Dr Gray. Then on 1st April they record that he withdrew his offer, desiring ‘to convey to the Board his thanks for the compliment passed upon him.’ Dr Fyson was appointed on the same terms as before. The meeting was reported in the paper where Dr Mead appears to have been the main supporter of Dr Fyson continuing in the role. It was felt that it would not be right for him to be ‘set aside for a stranger like Dr. Gray’ – showing that he was still regarded as new in town. Reference: The Bury Free Press. Saturday April 6 1867: 8.]
1867, 12th March: ‘The appointment of Dr.. Mead expiring on the 25th.. instant the clerk was directed to advertise in the local papers for a Medical Officer for District No.. 3 the election to take place on the 26th instant and the Board to be specially summoned.’ Reference: 611/25 (Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1867, 19th March: The cases of the two children from Ashley ‘suffering from spinal affection’ were again discussed (see 19th February above). ‘A letter from Dr. Gray of Newmarket was read stating that instruments are necessary and generously offering to undertake the charge of both cases and give his assistance gratuitously’. Instruments were provided by the Parish of Ashley for one case and the Newmarket Union for the other. Reference: 611/25, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1867, 26th March: Drs F C Gray and G B Mead received equal numbers of votes for the role of Medical Officer for District 3 of the Newmarket Union, so the chairman’s casting vote went to Dr Mead. Reference: 611/25, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: it appears that the casting vote was actually from the vice-chairman, who was acting chairman that day.], [Note also, the following year when the position came up for renewal George Borwick Mead was re-appointed apparently unopposed.], [Note also, George Borwick Mead had succeeded to this role in 1858 from Floyd Minter Peck, when William Henry Day the successor to Floyd Minter Peck’s practice had failed to secure the role. Frederick Clement Gray, the successor to William Henry Day’s practice, was therefore here trying to get the role back. However, whether he was aware of this history is not known. It’s of interest therefore that Frederick Clement Gray’s son, Clement Frederick Gray, took over this patch from Dr Mead in 1875, see newspaper reference below.]
1867, 26th August: ‘Dr. Gray, of Newmarket, was sent for,’ to attend to casualties from a horse and carriage accident on the road from Ashley to Gazeley. Reference: The Bury and Norwich Post. Tuesday Sept 3 1867: 8.
1867, September: Attended a shooting accident at Stetchworth, ‘The man was in a dangerous state, and Dr. Gray, of Newmarket, was immediately sent for, and that gentleman succeeded in extracting many of the shots from the most tender parts of the body and person, and under his prompt treatment and attention he is going on favourably.’ Reference: The Cambridge Independent Press. Saturday 14th Sept 1867: 8. [Note: see image above.]
1868: ‘Gray Frederick C., M.D., High street’ listed in Newmarket, also recorded as at ‘The Ter-race, High street’. Reference: Morris & Cos Directory of Suffolk with Gt. Yarmouth: 1868, pg 345&351. [Note: Faircloth Richard, surgeon, High street, Fyson Robert, surgeon, High street, Mead George Borwick, M.D., Mentmore house, High street were also listed], [Note also, the reference for this is incomplete, since the front pages were missing from the copy I have seen, it having been rebound with the title shown and dated in old ink on the first surviving page – copy in the Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds.]
1868, 23rd June: On Richard Faircloth’s retirement from the role of Workhouse Medical Officer ‘G. B. Mead and F. C. Gray both of Newmarket’ were candidates for the role. George Borwick Mead was successful again (cf. 26th March 1867 above). Reference: 611/26, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: Frederick Clement Gray’s son Clement Frederick Gray replaced George Borwick Mead in this role in 1874 – see 25th March 1875 and 17th July 1877 below also.]
1868, 28th July: ‘NEWMARKET. ESTABLISHMENT OF A COTTAGE HOSPITAL – We have much pleasure in announcing that Dr. Gray, of New-market, is calling the attention of the public of this town and neighbourhood to the advisability of establishing a Cottage Hospital…’ Reference: The Bury and Norwich Post. Tuesday Jul 28 1868: 5. [Note: see the page about the Rous Memorial Hospital for an image.]
1868, September: ‘COTTAGE HOSPITAL.- We are pleased to be able to announce that Dr. Gray, of Newmarket, is still actively engaged in carrying out his scheme for the establish-ment of a Cottage Hospital in this town.’ Reference: The Bury and Norwich Post. Tuesday Sept 15 1868: 8.
1869, 4th March: Clement Frederick Gray passed the first part of the LSA examination, apprenticed to ‘Fred’’. [sic] C Gray’. Reference: Court of Examiners Candidates’ Qualification Entry Book, The Society of Apothecaries Archives, Apothecaries’ Hall, Black Friars Lane, London EC4V 6EJ. [Note: the apprenticeship is recorded to have started in June 1863, he started attending lectures in October 1866 (interestingly exactly when Frederick Gray appears to have moved to Newmarket), and gained his hospital experience at St Bartholomew’s Hospital.], [Note also, he passed the second part of the examination 24th November 1870.]
1869, 12th March: Meeting reported in the press which included discussions regarding ‘the desirability of Cottage Hospitals… first recommended for consideration by Dr. Gray, who maintained, and still contends, that such local institutions are much needed… Believing that the experience and opinion of the medical men of the town and neighbourhood would be of great service in the discussion… they were invited to be present at the meeting, and their decision in the matter… was altogether, with the exception of Dr. Gray, opposed to it.’ Reference: The Bury Free Press. Saturday Mar 20 1869: 7.
1869, July: ‘A MIDNIGHT CAPTURE.- While Inspector Steggles, of the Suffolk force, in this town [this is in the Newmarket section], was on midnight duty last week, he observed a man with two dogs dropping from a wall surrounding a gentleman’s premises at the Cambridge end of the High-street, and on going up to him the Inspector recognized him as a noted character, named Fuller, generally known as “Chippenham Jack,” against whom he held a warrant. On attempting to take him Fuller resisted, and a severe struggle ensued, in the course of which both fell, Fuller being undermost, and on attempting to rise his leg was found to be broken. The Inspector at once got his horse and cart, and with assistance conveyed him to Dr. Gray’s house near by, and called up the doctor, who immediately set the leg and ordered his removal to the Union hospital, where he has since been attended by Dr. Mead, the house-surgeon. Great credit is due to the Inspector for his courageous conduct in apprehending this man.’ Reference: The Bury and Norwich Post. Tuesday July 27 1869: 5.
1871, 2nd/3rd April: Frederick C Grey [sic] born in Alton, Hampshire, aged 58, together with his wife Sophia, son Clement, daughters Florence and Emily, two Crompton grandchildren and five servants, living in Lushington House, Terrace, Newmarket. Both Frederick and Clement are described as ‘Gen Practitioner London’ presumably referring to their place of qualification. Reference: The National Archives, 1871 census. [Note: Emily was aged 27, born in Highgate, Middlesex, Clement aged 24, born in Dalston, Middlesex, Florence aged 13, born on the Isle of Sheppey.]
1874: ‘Gray Frederick Clement, M.D. physician, High street’ listed in Newmarket. Reference: History, gazetteer and directory of Suffolk… . Sheffield: William White; 1874, pg 387. [Note: Gray Clement, surgeon, High street, Faircloth Richard, surgeon, High street, Fyson Robert, surgeon, High street, Mead George Borwick, M.D. surgeon, High street, and Wright John Rowland, surgeon, High street are listed separately.]
1874, February/March: ‘NEWMARKET. PROPOSED ESABLISHMENT OF A COTTAGE HOSPITAL. A few years ago the question of establishing a Cottage Hospital in Newmarket was mooted by Dr. Gray, of this town,… but as the scheme met with some opposition the matter was allowed to slumber for a time. It has now, how-ever, been again introduced by Dr. Gray, who is most anxious to see such an institution established not only for the benefit of the town but of the whole rural district…’. He was unable to attend the public meeting about this due to sickness, so sent a letter, which was published as part of the report. The basic idea was that acute rather than chronic cases be admitted for ‘medical and surgical attendance, good nurs-ing and good diet’. He suggested that a cottage hospital, ‘offers great advantages, as urgent cases of accident or sickness, which constantly occur, might be dealt with without delay; and with the aid of proper appliances it would be a sort of auxiliary or handmaid to the larger hospi-tals to supply the wants of those who are unable to reach the County Hospital – the patient being sometimes too exhausted to bear a long journey, and the relatives reluctant to have the patient removed to a distance, which precludes the possibility of frequent visits… One feature of the scheme is that the patients contribute towards their own maintenance in the Hospital, for it has been found by experience that such per-sons contribute most gladly according to their means, whilst those who are unable are provided for by the Board of Guardians’. Subsequent discussions noted that there was already a hospital like this at Mildenhall, Royston and Epsom, and that it would be to the advantage of the public and the medics ‘for instead of going from village to village, they would have to go from bed to bed.’ Nevertheless, there were objections from Dr Mead who felt that a smaller scale endeavour would perhaps be appropriate and that other medics and inhabitants of Newmarket were of the same opinion. Interestingly ‘Mr. GRAY’ spoke at the meeting, presumably Clement? Reference: The Bury and Norwich Post. Tuesday Mar 3 1874: 8. [Note: see the page about the Rous Memorial Hospital for an image.]
1875, 25th March: ‘UNION MEDICAL DISTRICTS.- The Union medical district comprising the parishes of Ashley, Cheveley, Kennet, Moulton, and Woodditton, for several years held by Dr. Mead, has been annexed to that held by Mr. Clement F. Gray, son and partner of Dr. Gray, of Newmarket, who will commence his new duties on the 25th inst. About 12 months ago Mr. Gray was appointed to the district of Newmarket St. Mary’s and All Saints, on the resignation of Mr. Fyson, and after the small-pox epidemic, during which he was hospital doctor, he was unanimously elected successor to Dr. Mead as medical officer of the Workhouse.’ Reference: The Bury and Norwich Post. Tuseday Mar 23 1875: 8.
1875, June: Rough notes written in pencil on the back of the Abstract of Title for Lushington House, ‘Wm Henry Day Esq MD of Manchester Square had a lease for [number looks like a 5 and 8 superimposed?*] years. Mr Fredk. Gray – succeeded Dr Day– F G has lived there 9 – For some years S. R Lushington lived in the house’ Three more lines read ‘Lord Chesterfied – Fl[…?] – absolute Cook.[?]’. Reference: ‘Abstract of the title of James Lushington Wildman Lushington and Francis James Wildman Lushington Esquires to a messuage with garden and appurts at Newmarket in the County of Cambridge’ in collection RH114/013, (Cambridgeshire County Record Office [called Cambridgeshire Archives], Cambridge – subsequently relocated to Ely). [Note: I originally saw this collection at a solicitors’ office in London thanks to the Directors of the Lushington House Investment Company (see the page on Lushington House), and subsequently arranged for it to be deposited in the Cambridgeshire Archives where it now has this reference number.], [ * Note also, William Day had leased the house for about 5 years but had been in Newmarket about 8 years, so perhaps this number reflects an initial remark followed by a clarifying remark made by someone in conversation with Frederick Gray as the notes were being made?]
1875, 2nd August: Lushington House described as ‘that messuage or dwellinghouse situate on ‘the terrace’ at Newmarket… formerly in the occupation of Lord Chesterfield afterwards of the said Stephen Rumbold Lushington then of William Henry Day and now in the occupation of the said Frederick Clement Gray’. Reference: Conveyance of a Messuage or Dwellinghouse situate at Newmarket in the County of Cambridge. J. L. Wildman Lushington and F. J. Wildman Lushington to Frederick Clement Gray Esquire, in collection RH114/013, (Cambridgeshire County Record Office [called Cambridgeshire Archives], Cambridge – subsequently relocated to Ely). [Note: see comments in the reference above regarding this collection.]
1877, 17th July: ‘A letter from Mr Clement Gray, Medical Officer of the workhouse and of No 1 District was read intimating that he would shortly be absent from his District for two or three weeks when his father Mr F. C. Gray of Newmarket will perform his duties’. Reference: 611/30, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1881, 3rd/4th April: Fredk. C. Gray ‘General Practitioner’ born in Alton, Hampshire, aged 68, together with his wife Sophia, Clement F Gray unmarried son aged 34 ‘General Practitioner’ born in Dalston, London, a granddaughter, neice, and couple of servants living at 2 The Terrace (i.e. Lushington House). Reference: The National Archives, 1881 census.
1883, 8th July: Assisted Clement Gray in a cæsarean section operation, performed in a patient’s house at Newmarket. Reference: Gray C. Case of cæsarean section in a dwarf: recovery of the mother. The British Medical Journal 1883;2(1189):727. [Note: Robert Fyson, Ernest Last Fyson and Walter Hutchinson were also present.], [Note also, click here for a full account of this incident.]
1884, 16th December: Conveyance of plot of land behind Lushington House from W. P. Isaaccon to Fredk. C. Gray. Reference: RH114/013, (Cambridgeshire County Record Office [called Cambridgeshire Archives], Cambridge – subsequently relocated to Ely). [Note: see comments above regarding this collection], [Note also, a brochure for the Sale of William Parr Isaacson’s estate (three copies with annotations and diagrams) shows the plot of land bought by Dr Gray. Reference: EF506/10/6a, EF506/10/6b and HE500/4/1-28, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds); a similar brochure is in RH114/013], [Note also, this plot of land is now the part of Lushington House’s garden behind the house adjacent to the access road.]
1888: ‘Gray Fk. Clement, physician & surgeon, The Terrace, High st’ listed in Newmarket. Reference: Kelly’s directory of Cambridgeshire… . London: Kelly & Co.; 1888, pg 118. [Note: Gray Clement Frederick, Fyson Ernest Last, Hutchinson Walter, Mead George Borwick, Mead George Owen and Wright John Rowland, are listed separately as just ‘surgeon’ (the retired Robert Fyson is not listed in this commercial section, but is in the private residents section on pg 116.)]
1888, 17th May: ‘DEATH OF DR. F. C. GRAY.- We regret to announce the death of Dr. Frederick Clement Gray, M.R.C.S. England, L.S.A., L.M., Edinburgh, which took place at his residence, Lushington House, shortly before 2 o’clock on Thursday afternoon. The deceased gentleman, who was 75 years of age, came to Newmarket to practise about 22 years ago and soon earned a reputation for skill in his pro-fession; he had an extended experience, having taken his degree in 1834, and undergone his hospital training at St. Bartholomew’s, London. His last illness, caused principally by senile decay, was a lingering one; he was last downstairs on Easter Sunday, and previously to that had been confined to his room for some weeks. He leaves a widow and family to mourn his loss, the latter including Dr. C. F. Gray, the well-known surgeon of this town.’ Reference: The Newmarket Journal. Saturday May 19 1888: 5. [Note: Frederick Clement Gray is buried in Newmarket Cemetery under a large cross not far from the entrance on the right hand side, with and alongside other family members – see image above.]
Honan RF. The Gray Matter. Adelaide: Lutheran Publishing House; 1987. [Note: this book charts the Gray family from old family records going back to 1437 (!) and includes lots of detail regarding Australian branches descending from Frederick Clement Gray’s brothers, but it does include a small section on the Newmarket medical Grays, including pictures of Alton House and Lushington House taken in 1985. I have used this source for dates of birth, marriage and death etc. and early Gray family history.]
Newmarket Union Minutes 1866-1867-1877-1888. Reference: 611/25-30-33, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: Frederick Clement Gray was never an officer of the Newmarket Union, but does feature between 1867 (book 25) and 1877 (book 30) as in the references above, although the entire minutes corresponding to his time in Newmarket have been examined.]
Re: Suffolk Medical Biographies. http://www.suffolkmedicalbiographies.co.uk/ (originally accessed pre October 2013). [Note: at the time of writing (June 2017), this website had no page on Frederick Clement Gray. It did however have a reference on the Clement Frederick Gray page to the marriage of Emily in 1881, incorrectly calling her the daughter not sister of Clement i.e. she was the daughter of Frederick], [Note also, see comments regarding this website on the Francis Greene page.]
Shops History Newmarket. http://www.newmarketshops.info/index.html. [Note: newmarketshops.info has been supplied with information regarding the medical history of Newmarket by the author of talkingdust.net since August 2013 (see footnotes on some of the pages). Both websites continue to be developed, and in this sense are mutually symbiotic.]
The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1850-1888. [Note: see above references for full 1850, 1860, 1862 and 1867 entries.] [Note also: this publication has been known by various titles over the years. Initially it just covered London, but from 1847 it had a wider remit, being variously known as the London and Provincial Medical Directory, The Medical Directories, The Medical Directory, etc., essentially the same work with minor variations and developments. It is usually referred to as The Medical Directory (as opposed to The Medical Register), so that is how it’s consistently referred to on talkingdust.net.]
The Medical Register. London: General Medical Council; 1859ff. [Note: The Medical Registers give his address as Melbourn in 1859 to 1866, then Newmarket from 1867; it appears he did not advise them of his time in Holmes Chapel.]
Note: For published material referenced on this website see the ‘Acknowledgements for resources of published material’ section on the ‘Usage &c.’ page. The sources used for original unpublished documents are noted after each individual reference. Any census records are referenced directly to The National Archives, since images of these are so ubiquitous on microfilm and as digital images that they almost function like published works. Census records are covered by the ‘Open Government Licence’ as should be other such public records (see the ‘Copyright and related issues’ section on the ‘Usage &c.’ page for which references constitute public records, and any other copyright issues more generally such as fair dealing/use etc.).