George Borwick Mead was born in Ramsey, Huntingdonshire, in 1831. He was the son of Joseph Mead, variously described as a chemist or druggist, but who interesting featured in some of the early Medical Directories too (see The Meads for more details). Nevertheless, although George no doubt gained some knowledge from his father, he wasn’t formally apprenticed to him.
His education is intriguing, being documented in some detail but not completely clear. His apprenticeship indenture was dated 1847, when he would have been 16 years of age, and he gained his MRCS and LSA qualifications 7 years later in 1854, when he would have been 23 years of age, a training typical for the period (see The history of medical treatments, training, qualifications and regulation). The core of his training seems to have been a 5 year apprenticeship to Richard Caton, a surgeon and apothecary in Bradford, Yorkshire, followed by 18 months experience at St Bartholomew’s Hospital in London. However, a paper published in 1854 reveals that apparently some time between 1848 and 1850 (when he would have been with Richard Caton) he was a pupil of Dr Edwin Morris, a surgeon in Spalding, Lincolnshire. Moreover, he’s recorded as having started attending lectures in 1851 (presumably in London), and taking examinations in 1852, 53 and 54 (in which he excelled according to an 1854 Newspaper report, although suffering ‘a severe ill-ness produced by too great mental application’ in the process!). Richard Caton relocated from Bradford to Scarborough between 1849 and 50, so whether George Mead gained some of his experience there is unclear (if he served a full 5 years with Richard Caton he must have done, but perhaps he didn’t, and completed his apprenticeship with Edwin Morris?). Nevertheless, he reports having been back in Bradford in 1850 and 1851 in the 1854 paper, so the picture is not completely clear. Basically though, his training appears to have included experience in Bradford, Spalding, and perhaps Scarborough, with lectures and examinations in London from 1851 onwards, likely backwards and forwards between London and the provinces before the last 18 months spent at St Bartholomew’s Hospital.
He perhaps developed links with Newmarket during a brief spell at Bury St Edmunds from where he published his 1854 paper, the year he qualified (perhaps he was a house surgeon at the Hospital there?). However, his links with Newmarket might have gone back further, since in 1867 he said that he’d known the Newmarket medic Robert Fyson nearly 20 years, unless he was exaggerating. Before arriving in Newmarket George Mead appears to have practised briefly with his father in Ramsey, then at nearby Chatteris, where he married in 1856 to Elizabeth Owen, a farmer’s daughter from Mepal, which is near Chatteris. By 1857 they’d settled in Newmarket. Interestingly, during his early years in Newmarket he’s recorded adding to his qualifications by obtaining an MD from St Andrews in 1858 and a PhD and MA from Giessen, Germany in 1859.
George Borwick Mead joined the already established Newmarket medic Frederick Page in partnership – see The Page-Meads-Crompton practice chain. Page and Mead, as they were known, were surgeons to the Rutland Club (possibly a form of medical insurance scheme – see Frederick Page for more on this). In January 1858 they also took on Floyd Peck’s role as medical officers to the Duke of Rutland’s Cheveley Estate (on Floyd’s emigration to Australia). The next month George Mead obtained Floyd’s Newmarket Union role as well, beating Floyd’s successor William Henry Day in an election for that post. However, just a few months later the Page-Mead partnership was dissolved, with Frederick Page moving away. At that point their business was described as one of Surgeon, Apothecary, and Accoucheur (an alternative word for man-midwife, a male medic who assisted with obstetric issues – note his 1854 qualification in that regard as well, in the references below, common for medics of the time). Elsewhere he’s described as a physician and a General Medical Practitioner, such variable terminology being typical at this time also (see The history of medical treatments, training, qualifications and regulation).
Nearly a decade later, in 1867, George Mead narrowly retained his Newmarket Union role in an election against William Day’s successor Frederick Gray. Then the following year, on the retirement of Richard Faircloth as Workhouse Medical Officer, George Mead added that role to his duties as well, in another election against Frederick Gray. There appears to have been a degree of professional rivalry between these two practices (see other examples in the references below), including George Mead not being keen on Frederick Gray’ proposal for a cottage hospital in town, but it’s of note that he nominated Frederick Gray’s son Clement as his substitute in 1872. In 1874 he experienced problems in his Newmarket Union role regarding allegations about some vaccinations he’d performed and some other issues, so he resigned. Interestingly Clement Gray replaced him, so things went full circle between the practices.
Following their arrival in Newmarket, George and Elizabeth Mead had two sons and two daughters (see the baptismal, birth registration and census records below, and The Meads for full details). Their eldest child was George Owen Mead, who followed his father into the medical profession and joined him in practice at Newmarket, where he can be seen as a fellow medic on the 1881 census in the family home of Mentmore House (see the page on George Owen Mead for an image of the census, and the page on Mentmore House for images of that also). The first documentary evidence of this being the Mead’s address comes from the 1859 Medical Register, but likely they’d lived there since their arrival in 1856. It’s interesting that this was Robert James Peck’s house earlier in the 19th century, so it had been used as a surgery before. It’s not clear who lived in the house in between the Pecks and the Meads (but presumably not a medic) – see the page on Mentmore House for further discussion on this. It’s also of interest that George Mead used his servant’s room for particularly sick patients on more than one occasion, almost using his house like a mini-hospital, which is one reason why he didn’t see the need for a cottage hospital (see details in the references below).
Regarding George Mead senior’s medical activities, some interesting examples of records that have survived are detailed in the references below. He appears to have had a particular interest in the role of hygiene and bathing in medicine, with publications on that subject to his name (see his later Medical Directory entries below). In these directories he also highlights his 1854 publication, which was on the use of chloric æther. As with other generalist medics of this period he performed his own post mortems too, partly for educational purposes, for example in a case from 1869 involving a rare kidney disease. The same year he mentioned ‘the apparatus for galvanizing for rheumatic fever’ which he had use of ‘at his own home or the Union Hospital’ (cf. The Pecks ‘electricity performed’ using ‘a capital Electrifying Machine’ in Chelmsford, and William Henry Day’s use of galvanism in 1864). From a medico-legal perspective there’s an interesting case involving George Mead documented in 1870, in which a patient ‘suffering from disease of a contagious character’ was declared ‘in an unfit state to be discharged from the Hospital’ so she was detained in the workhouse by law ‘until the Medical Officer shall in writing certify that such discharge may take place’. About this time it seems that he even found time to serve in the Franco-German/Prussian war of 1870-1871, since he’s recorded as having received the Legion of Honour in 1871, apparently working as a surgeon for the Ambulance de la Presse in Paris (see his 1902 Medical Directory entry below)!
George Mead senior perhaps tailed off his medical work in Newmarket later in his career. He seems to have developed a particular interest in Medical Defence, from 1890 listing a role as Organising Secretary to the Medical Defence Union in his Medical Directory entry. Then from 1893 he listed Honorary Secretary to the London and Counties Medical Protection Society. Interestingly he was involved with that organisation’s foundation in 1892, which is fascinating from a Newmarket perspective – it’s a global organisation now. Then from 1896 he records being Chairman of the Medical Defence Insurance Syndicate. This change of tack to medical defence took place in his mid to late 50s, a few years after the death of his wife in 1885. From 1890 he started listing various London addresses in the Medical Directory. He’s shown in London on the day of the 1891 census, with his children back in Mentmore House, the 34 year old George Owen Mead apparently running the practice. In 1892 George Mead senior was described as ‘of Newmarket and London’ when speaking at a meeting in Croydon regarding the Medical Protection Society. The Meads partnership in practice was eventually dissolved in 1896, interestingly very shortly after George Mead senior (by this time calling himself George Borthwick Mead, the earliest example of which is his 1893 signature on the 1892 document above) had married a 19 year old farmer’s daughter from Wicken (Frances Mildred Johnson), but they married in Kensington, London. Later they can be found living in Cambridge where he died in 1901. (Despite the enormous age difference their relationship appears to have worked, since his gravestone in Mill Road cemetery Cambridge bears the inscription, ‘a token of affection from his loving wife’.)
Sadly George Owen Mead (George Mead junior) died the year before his father, in 1900, the practice seemingly being continued by Ernest Crompton, who can be found in Mentmore House on the 1901 census (see the pages on Mentmore House, George Owen Mead, Ernest Crompton and The Page-Meads-Crompton practice chain for details).
Regarding contemporaries, Frederick Page followed by the Meads formed one of the four practices that dominated 19th century Newmarket, the other three being the Pecks/Day–Grays, the Fysons/Gamble and Richard Faircloth’s practice, which George Mead would have seen evolve into Wright/Hutchinson who then diverged into two separate practices. Interestingly, although from a different practice, George Mead appears to have worked quite closely with Samuel Gamble on occasions, making use of his assistance with surgical cases e.g. in 1866, March 1868 and February 1870 in the references below.
It’s of interest to the author of this website (and perhaps to anyone else who has read so far down this page) that George Borwick Mead published something in 1864 regarding the ‘History of Newmarket during the Reign of James I’. I haven’t been able to find this work; it would be very interesting to see whether he mentions any medics in it, such as the early Greenes or William Harvey.
Image 1: From a copy of the Medical Directories at The Society of Apothecaries Archives, London; reproduced with kind permission of The Society of Apothecaries Archives. [Note: for further details regarding this publication see the references and other sources consulted sections below.]
Image 2: An oil painting from the Science Museum, London, thought probably to be by Edmund Bristowe (1787-1876); image used under CC BY 4.0, reproduced with kind permission of the Science Museum and Wellcome Collection. [Note: click here for the source.]
Image 3: From Companies House website (cropped); image ©, reproduced with kind permission of the MPS and Companies House. [Note: click here for the source.]
Image 4: Photograph taken in 2019, by the author of talkingdust.net.
Note: see comments regarding images and copyright © etc. on the Usage &c. page as well.
1831, 25th April: George Borwick Mead baptised, son of druggist Joseph and Jane Mead, Ramsey, Huntingdonshire (born 21st April 1831). Reference: Online image of the Huntingdon St Mary (Wesleyan) register of baptisms for the Huntingdon Circuit held at The National Archives, ancestry.co.uk (accessed 17th November 2017). [Note: a separate image from The National Archives ‘General Register Office: Birth Certificates from the Presbyterian, Independent and Baptist Registry and from the Wesleyan Methodist Metropolitan Registry’ reveals that the baptism took place at the Methodist Chapel in Ramsey.]
1851, 30th/31st March: Joseph Mead aged 48, Chemist, together with his wife Jane, a visitor and a servant, Ramsey High Street, Huntingdonshire. Reference: The National Archives, 1851 census. [Note: this appears to have been George Mead’s parents. I have not been able to find George Mead himself on the 1851 census in Bradford (see below), London or elsewhere, but the 1854 paper below suggests that he was somewhere in Yorkshire in 1850/51, but perhaps he had left before the census? I haven’t been able to find the family at all yet on the 1841 census.]
1854, 8th April: ‘RAMSEY.- Medical.- Among the gentlemen who were admitted members of the Royal College of Sur-geons, London, at the examination on Friday week, was George B. Mead, Esq., formerly a pupil of Edwin Morris, Esq. M.D., Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, of this town. We understand Mr. Mead was highly com-plimented by the Members of the Court of Examiners, for the proficiency he evinced in the different subjects of ex-amination. During his academical career, Mr. Mead has distinguished himself highly, notwithstanding a severe ill-ness produced by too great mental application. In 1852, he obtained honorary distinctions in the three classes of Anatomy, Physiology, and Chemistry; in 1853, in Mid-wifery, Practical Chemistry, Botany: in 1854, Medical Jurisprudence, Materia Medica and Therapeutics, and Midwifery.- Spalding Free Press. [Mr. Mead is a son of Mr. J. Mead, of this place.]’. Reference: Cambridge Chronicle and University Journal. Saturday Apr 08 1854: 7. [Note: this is quoting the Spalding Free Press and Dr Edwin Morris was Surgeon to the Spalding Dispensary and Union Infirmary in the 1854 Medical Directory.]
1854, 15th June: George Borwick Mead passed the LSA examination, ‘son of Joseph Mead, of Ramsey, in the County of Huntingdon’, apprenticed to ‘Mr. Richard Caton, of Bradford, Yorkshire’, ‘Surgeon & APOTHECARY for five Years’ [note: ‘Surgeon &’ and ‘five’ are added in hand, the rest pre-printed in the book], with an indenture dated 9th March 1847. It records his hospital training having been 18 months at St Bartholomew’s Hospital. His date of birth is recorded as 21st April 1831. He’s recorded as having started attending lectures in October 1851, including those on chemistry, anatomy and physiology, anatomical demonstrations, materia medica, botany, midwifery, principles and practice of medicine, forensic medicine, practical chemistry, clinical lectures, morbid anatomy and dissections. Reference: Court of Examiners Candidates’ Qualification Entry Book, The Society of Apothecaries Archives, Apothecaries’ Hall, Black Friars Lane, London EC4V 6EJ. [Note: in the Medical Directories, Richard Caton relocated from Bradford to Scarborough between 1849 and 1850. Possibly therefore some of George Mead’s apprenticeship was served in Scarborough?]
1854: Published on the use of chloric æther, but in the process revealed some details about his whereabouts. ‘During the years 1846, 7, and 8, the typhus fever pre-vailed to a considerable extent in several of the most popu-lous districts of the Bradford (Yorkshire) Union’ followed by comments implying he was there. He then mentions a time when he was ‘residing with Dr. Morris of Spalding’ and later ‘In 1850 and 1851, I was again residing in Yorkshire’. The communication is in two parts ending ‘Bury St. Edmund’s, Suffolk, August 17th, 1854’ and ‘Bury St. Edmunds, September 18th, 1854’. Reference: Mead GB. Chloric æther: its properties and uses, especially in choleriac and other forms of diarrhoea, and in cholera. Association Medical Journal 1854;2(88):819-820 & 2(92):905-908. [Note: this was the name of the British Medical Journal from 1853-1856.]
1855: ‘MEAD, JOSEPH, Ramsey, Hunts – In practice prior to 1815; Dist. Vacc.’ Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1855. [Note: this was likely/possibly George’s father, elsewhere described as a druggist or chemist.]
1855: ‘MEAD, GEORGE BORWICK, Ramsey, Hunts – M.R.C.S. Eng.; Lic. Midw. and L.S.A. 1854.’ Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1855. [Note: this was his first appearance in the Medical Directory.]
1856: ‘MEAD, GEORGE BORWICK, Chatteris, Isle of Ely, Cambridgesh.- M.R.C.S.Eng.; Lic. Midw. And L.S.A. 1854.’ Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1856.
1856, 7th May: George Borwick Mead, bachelor, surgeon of Chatteris, son of Joseph a chemist, married Elizabeth Owen, spinster of this parish, daughter of Thomas a farmer. Reference: An indexed transcription of the parish registers of Mepal. Cambridgeshire Family History Society; 2010, (Cambridgeshire County Record Office [called Cambridgeshire Archives], Cambridge – subsequently relocated to Ely).
1857: ‘MEAD, GEORGE BORWICK, New-market, Cambs. (Page and Mead) – M.R.C.S.Eng.; L.M., and L.S.A. 1854; Surg. Rutland Club; late Asst.-Surg. Spalding Infirm. Author “Chloric Æther, its properties, Chemical Com-position, and Uses,” 1854.’ Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1857.
1857: ‘PAGE, FREDERICK, Newmarket, Cambs. (Page and Mead) – M.R.C.S. 1837; F.R.C.S. 1856; L.S.A. 1834.’ Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1857. [Note: this is the first time that his FRCS is mentioned, stating 1856, but thereafter it is dated 1855, although it is not mentioned in the 1856 Directory.]
1858, January: ‘CHEVELEY.- Medical Appointment.- Messrs. Page and Mead, of Newmarket, have been appointed sur-geons upon the Duke of Rutland’s Cheveley estate, in the room of Mr. Peck, whose removal has also caused a vacancy in one of the Union districts, to which Messrs. Page and Mead are likely to be appointed’. Reference: Cambridge Chronicle and University Journal. Saturday Jan 23 1858: 5. [Note: the word ‘removal’ here does not imply sacking; it was used to mean ‘moving’ as we would ‘move house’, and presumably is why we still use ‘removal vans’ to do so. cf. Woodward Mudd’s 1813 public notice. Mr. Peck was about to move to Australia! – see the page on Floyd Minter Peck for more details.]
1858, 5th February: Mr. George B. Mead elected as medical officer to district 3, having received 18 votes compared with 10 for Dr. William H. Day. Reference: 611/21, Newmarket Union Minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: at that time district 3 comprised the villages of Cheveley, Woodditton, Ashley, Moulton and Kennett.], [Note also, on subsequent years he was regularly reappointed, apparently unopposed until 1867 (see below), and the comment made that there was no other medical practitioner resident in these villages.]
1858, 9th February: ‘THE UNION – MEDICAL OFFICER.- At a meeting of the Board of Guardians, on Friday last, there were two candidates for the appointment of Surgeon for No. 3 District, comprising Ashley, Cheveley, Kennet, Moulton, and Woodditton, namely, Mr. Day, successor to the practice of Mr. Peck, the late officer, and Mr. Mead, of the firm of Page and Mead, Newmarket, when Mr. Mead was successful, having gained the appointment by a majority of ten.’ Reference: The Bury and Norwich Post. Tuesday Feb 9 1858: 3. [Note: according to the minutes above the majority was 8 – don’t believe everything you read in the papers (or minutes?)!]
1858, 1st May: ‘NOTICE is hereby Given, that the PARTNER-SHIP heretofore subsisting between us, the undersigned FREDERICK PAGE and GEORGE BORWICK MEAD, in the profession, practice, and business of a Surgeon, Apothecary, and Accoucheur, at Newmarket, in the counties of Suffolk and Cambridge, and elsewhere under the style or firm of “Page and Mead,” was DISSOLVED, by mutual, [sic] consent, on the first day of May instant. / Witness our hands this 29th day of May, in the year 1858. / FREDERICK PAGE. / GEORGE B. MEAD.’ Reference: The Cambridge Independent Press. Saturday Jun 5 1858: 2. [Note: a similar notice appeared a few days earlier in the Bury and Norwich Post. Reference: The Bury and Norwich Post. Tuesday Jun 1 1858: 3.], [Note also, an ‘accoucheur’ is another name for a male medic who assists with childbirth, sometimes also referred to historically as a ‘man midwife’ – see the page on William Sandiver 2 for an example of this, and see also The history of medical treatments, training, qualifications and regulation.]
1859: ‘PAGE, FREDERICK, Cambridge – M.D. St. And. 1858; F.R.C.S. Eng. 1855; M.R.C.S. 1837; L.S.A. 1834. Surg. Rutland Club; Mem. Brit. Med. Assoc. Contrib. to Lancet and Med. Times.’ Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1859. [Note: after Cambridge Frederick Page settled near Portsmouth – see the page of Frederick Page for details.]
1860: ‘MEAD, GEORGE BORWICK, Ment-more House, Newmarket, St Mary’s, Suffolk – M.D., Ph.D., and M.A. Giessen, 1859; M.R.C.S. Eng.; L.M., and L.S.A. 1854; Surg. Rutland Clubs; Med. Off. Cheveley Dist. Newmarket Union; late Asst.-Surg. Spalding Infirm. Author “Chloric Æther, its Properties, Chemical Com-position, and Uses,” 1854.’ Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1857. [Note: this was the first mention of Mentmore House in his Medical Directory entries, but see the Medical Register comment for 1859 below.]
1861, 8th February: ‘Dr. Mead attended and explained his reasons for ordering “Meat and Gin” in 12 cases upon his Medical List which was deemed satisfactory’. Reference: 611/22, Newmarket Union Minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1861, 7/8th April: George B Mead, aged 29, with qualifications listed, born in Ramsey, Hunts, together with his wife Elizabeth, son George O Mead aged 4, daughter Georgina J Mead aged 3 months (both born in Newmarket) and three servants, living at Mentmore House, High St, Newmarket St Mary’s parish. Reference: The National Archives, 1861 census.
1861, 31st May: ‘On a complaint made at the last Board Day by… a Pauper at Cheveley for neglect of duty Dr. Mead this day attended the Board and gave his explanation.’ Reference: 611/23, Newmarket Union Minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: it’s interesting that complaints were received and dealt with in the 19th century like this. There were later examples in the minutes too, and Dr Mead was not alone in this – see others mentioned alongside one involving Richard Faircloth’s assistant in 1849. Sometimes the medical officer’s explanation was deemed satisfactory, other times not (see October 1874 below).]
1862, 9th March: Georgina Bessie Jane, daughter of physician George Borwick and Elizabeth Mead of St Mary’s parish Newmarket baptised. Reference: J552/10, microfilm of Newmarket St Mary’s parish register, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: I haven’t been able to find the baptisms of the other three children, in Newmarket or any other obvious places, such as Mepal or Ramsey, in the Church of England nor non-conformist registers that I could find. However, George Borwick Owen Mead’s birth was registered in Newmarket during the 1st quarter of 1857, Georgina Bessie Jane Mead 1Q 1861, Jane Georgette Mead 4Q 1864 and Percy G Mead 3Q 1866. There is no record of a Newmarket Georgina Mead in 1870/1 or Georgette in 1874/5 – see the 1891 census below, so there probably were no such people, these being 1861 and 64 sisters giving the wrong ages! Reference: Online images of the General Register Office England and Wales Civil Registration Indexes, ancestry.co.uk (accessed 19th December 2017).]
1864: George B. Mead listed as a surgeon in the High Street under ‘Trades and Professions’ in Newmarket. Reference: History, Topography, & Directory of Cambridgeshire and Hertfordshire… . London: Edward Cassey and Co.; 1864, pg 164. [Note: Richard Faircloth, and Fyson & Gamble, are also listed as surgeons in the High Street, William Henry Day as a physician in the High Street, apparently singling out William Henry Day as particularly a physician?]
1864, 13rd May: ‘Dr. Mead attended and named as his substitute Mr. Robert Roper of Newmarket a duly qualified practitioner’. Reference: 611/23, Newmarket Union Minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: The Medical Directorys of 1864 and 65 record Robert Roper with a Bury St Edmund’s address and as ‘not practising’. Perhaps he had a Newmarket address as well, and could be called into action needs be.]
1864, 18th October and 1st November: ‘Dr. Mead Medical Officer of District No 3 having stated to the Board that certain serious nuisances existed in the parish of Woodditton and that in consequence of the prevalence of fever it would be dangerous for the Guardians to inspect them. Dr. Mead and the Relieving Officer were authorised to make a further examination and report to the Board thereon with the names of the owners of the premises infected’ ‘The report of Messrs. G. B. Mead and Chas. Millington upon the nuisances existing in Woodditton was presented and the Clerk was directed to write to the owners of the respective premises requiring purification’. Reference: 611/24, Newmarket Union Minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: there were later similar entries in the minutes – see the page on The Newmarket Union (and workhouse) for more details.]
1866, 24th February: It was reported in the press that someone who got their hand trapped in a ‘steam chaff cutting machine’ ‘was at once conveyed to Dr. Mead’s surgery, at Newmarket, where the hand, with the exception of the forefinger and thumb, was amputated by Drs. Mead and Gamble.’ Reference: The Cambridge Chronicle and University Journal. Saturday Feb 24 1866: 8.
1867, 19th February: Dr Mead (Medical Officer for District 3) recommended that two children from Ashley ‘suffering from spinal disease’ be ‘removed’ (i.e. referred) to the ‘National Orthopaedic Hospital Great Portland St., Regents Park, London’ and ‘the clerk was directed to ascertain from the secretary of the hospital, in the event of their removal, the cost of their maintenance there and any other information requisite for procuring their admission as in-patients’ (but Dr Gray stepped in – see the page on Frederick Clement Gray for details). Reference: 611/25, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1867, 4th March: Dr Gray offered his services to the Newmarket Board of Health free of charge. Reference: EF506/1/2, Newmarket Board of Health minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: It was decided to approach Dr Fyson, the existing person in the role, to see if he would make the same offer. The minutes of 18th March record that he declined and so the post was offered to Dr Gray. Then on 1st April they record that he withdrew his offer, desiring ‘to convey to the Board his thanks for the compliment passed upon him.’ Dr Fyson was appointed on the same terms as before. The meeting was reported in the paper where Dr Mead appears to have been the main supporter of Dr Fyson continuing in the role ‘after nearly 20 years knowledge of him’ (which is interesting, since George Mead had been in Newmarket only 10 years – did he know the Fysons’ beforehand; was that his connection to Newmarket?). It was felt that it would not be right for him to be ‘set aside for a stranger like Dr. Gray’ – he was fairly new in town (see the page on Frederick Clement Gray for details). Reference: The Bury Free Press. Saturday April 6 1867: 8.]
1867, 12th March: ‘The appointment of Dr.. Mead expiring on the 25th.. instant the clerk was directed to advertise in the local papers for a Medical Officer for District No.. 3 the election to take place on the 26th instant and the Board to be specially summoned.’ Reference: 611/25 (Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1867, 26th March: Drs F C Gray and G B Mead received equal numbers of votes for the role of Medical Officer for District 3 of the Newmarket Union, so the chairman’s casting vote went to Dr Mead. Reference: 611/25, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: it appears that the casting vote was actually from the vice-chairman, who was acting chairman that day.], [Note also, the following year when the position came up for renewal George Borwick Mead was re-appointed apparently unopposed, and regularly thereafter.], [Note also, George Borwick Mead had succeeded to this role in 1858 from Floyd Minter Peck, when William Henry Day the successor to Floyd Minter Peck’s practice had failed to secure the role. Frederick Clement Gray, the successor to William Henry Day’s practice, was therefore here trying to get the role back. However, whether he was aware of this history is not known. It’s of interest therefore that Frederick Clement Gray’s son, Clement Frederick Gray, took over this patch from Dr Mead in 1875, see newspaper reference below.]
1868: ‘Mead George Borwick, M.D., Mentmore house, High street’. Reference: Morris & Cos Directory of Suffolk with Gt. Yarmouth: 1868, pg 345&351. [Note: Faircloth Richard, surgeon, High street, Fyson Robert, surgeon, High street, ‘Gray Frederick C., M.D., High street were also listed], [Note also, the reference for this is incomplete, since the front pages were missing from the copy I have seen, it having be rebound with the title shown and dated in old ink on the first surviving page – copy in the Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds.]
1868, 23rd June: On Richard Faircloth’s retirement from the role of Workhouse Medical Officer ‘G. B. Mead and F. C. Gray both of Newmarket’ were candidates for the role. George Borwick Mead was successful again (cf. 26th March 1867 above). Reference: 611/26, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: Frederick Clement Gray’s son Clement Frederick Gray replaced George Borwick Mead in this role in 1874 – see 25th March 1875 below also.]
1869, 12th March: Meeting reported in the press which included discussions regarding ‘the desirability of Cottage Hospitals… first recommended for consideration by Dr. Gray, who maintained, and still contends, that such local institutions are much needed… Believing that the experience and opinion of the medical men of the town and neighbourhood would be of great service in the discussion… they were invited to be present at the meeting, and their decision in the matter… was altogether, with the exception of Dr. Gray, opposed to it.’ Dr Mead appears to have been the main speaker against the idea. His remarks are reported at length, but include the interesting comments, he ‘commenced by alluding to an effort made some years ago by the Newmarket Board of Guardians and the Local Board of Health combined, to establish a receiving house for persons labouring under infections disorders, such as small-pox, fever, &c., which would, without doubt, have been erected, but in consequence of the epidemic having ceased the project was dropped and lost sight of; and he was happy to say that since that time such epidemics were very rare in the town of Newmarket, while the surrounding towns and villages had suffered severely from them. Whenever a case appeared in the town it was immediately stamped out, and never seemed to spread further than the immediate neighbourhood or part of the town in which it originated, and this he attributed to the fact of the atmosphere of Newmarket being so very healthy. He Dr Mead had been appealed to by Baron Rothschild, and questioned about the safety of coming and remaining in the town of Newmarket on account of any existing diseases, and his reply to the Baron had been that there was no danger, and that he might inform his friends that they were safer in Newmarket than in London, on account of the purity of the atmosphere, and it was a notorious fact that Newmarket was one of the healthiest places in the world… in all cases of need, he, and Messrs. Faircloth, Fyson and Gamble were unremitting in their attention [indirectly revealing the four practices in 1869, i.e. Mead, Gray, Faircloth, and Fyson & Gamble]… As a proof that cases of emergency were properly dealt with under the present system, he (Dr. Mead) adverted to two instances of a recent date – cases in which he was desirous of having the patients near him. In the first, a very serious one, he requested his man-servant to allow him to use his bedroom, where the patient had every attention paid to him – having two or three visits daily from him and Mr. Gamble, as well as from a medical gentle-man staying with him. The patient died notwithstanding. The other case was one of a serious accident, in which, after performing the operation with Mr. Gamble, there was danger of haemorrhage, and this patient was also placed in that room, and frequently attended by himself and Mr. Gamble until he was able to return to his home… Dr. Mead then alluded to the working and management of the Union Hospital [see the page on Newmarket Hospital for what he said about that]… Dr. Mead proceeded to point out other means at his disposal for the necessary treatment of various diseases. There was the apparatus for galvanizing for rheumatic fever either at his own home or the Union Hospital…’ Reference: The Bury Free Press. Saturday Mar 20 1869: 7. [Note: see 1871 below for further mention of the Rothschilds and the page on Mentmore House regarding the potential significance of this, and 1874 for similar use of the servant’s room.]
1869, 13th April: Dr G. B. Mead was granted permission by the Guardians to perform a post mortem on a patient from the workhouse who had died with no known relatives and ‘had suffered from a rare and interesting form of kidney disease’. Reference: 611/26, Newmarket Union Minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1870, 1st February: Mr Samuel Gamble, surgeon, reported as having assisted Dr G. B. Mead in a midwifery case which required ‘a series of operations’. Reference: 611/26, Newmarket Union Minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1870, 12th April: Dr G. B. Mead certified that a patient was ‘suffering from disease of a contagious character’ and was ‘in an unfit state to be discharged from the Hospital’ so she was detained in the workhouse by law ‘until the Medical Officer shall in writing certify that such discharge may take place’. Reference: 611/27, Newmarket Union Minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: for anyone interested, the law in question cited was ‘Section 22 of the 30 and 31 Vic.cap.106’.]
1871, 2nd/3rd April: George B Mead aged 39, with qualifications listed, born in Ramsey, Hunts, together with his wife Elizabeth, born in Mepal, Cambs, sons ‘Owen’ and Percy Mead aged 14 and 4 respectively, and daughters ‘Georgie’ and Jane Mead aged 10 and 6 respectively (all born in Newmarket) and two servants, living at Mentmore House, High St, Newmarket St Mary’s parish. Reference: The National Archives, 1871 census.
1871, 18th July: ‘Doctor Mead Medical Officer of the Workhouse reported that the Baroness de Rothschild had requested him to expend a sum not exceeding £20 in promoting the comfort of deserving inmates of the Union Workhouse and requested the Board to sanction and suggest what means the intentions of the Baroness can best be carried into effect [sic] when after some discussion permission was granted to a dinner of roast Beef and plum pudding being provided for all the inmates of the Workhouse excepting the adult able bodied Paupers.’ Reference: 611/27, Newmarket Union Minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: to put this in perspective, in 1877 when the Union advertised for a new nurse, the annual salary was £20 per year (28th August 1877 – 611/30).], [Note also, on the 1st August it was minuted, ‘The Master having reported that a sufficient sum of money remained out of Baroness de Rothschild’s Gift to defray the expense of taking the workhouse school children to Harwich the Board consented to their being taken by Rail and Boat by the Great Eastern Railway Company’s advertised excursion on Friday next and the clerk was directed to convey the thanks of the Guardians to the Baroness de Rothschild for her munificient [sic] gift.], [Note also, see 1869 above for further mention of the Rothschilds.], [Note also, there was another example in 1864 of ‘Baroness Rothschild’ giving money to Richard Faircloth when he was medical officer to the workhouse, on that occasion ‘for distribution amongst the aged and the boys and girls in the workhouse’ (6th May 1864 – 611/23).]
1872, 25th June: ‘Dr Mead named Mr. Clement Gray of Newmarket a legally qualified Medical Practitioner to whom application for medicine or attendance may be made in the case of his absence from home or other hindrance to his personal attendance – approved’. Reference: 611/28, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: it’s not clear how long this arrangement was for, but in 1874 he named a ‘Mr Charles Casar’ who was presumably Charles Augustus Caesar (!) in the medical directory of the same year, of London, as someone ‘to whom application for medicines or attendance may be made at his Dr. Mead’s Surgery during his temporary absence from home’. Reference: 611/29, 12th May 1874 Newmarket Union minutes – there was another London based ‘locum’ employed later the same year. Reference: 611/29, 4th August 1874 Newmarket Union minutes.], [Note also, shortly before nominating Clement Gray in 1872 he’d had to employ a Mr Anderson who’d recently been working in the Fulbourn asylum, due to having become ‘suddenly indisposed’ for a week – 18th and 25th minutes (611/28).]
1874: ‘Mead George Borwick, M.D. surgeon, High street’ listed in Newmarket. Reference: History, gazetteer and directory of Suffolk… . Sheffield: William White; 1874, pg 388. [Note: Gray Clement, surgeon, High street, Gray Frederick Clement, M.D. physician, High street, Faircloth Richard, surgeon, High street, Fyson Robert, surgeon, High street, and Wright John Rowland, surgeon, High street are listed separately.]
1874, February/March: ‘NEWMARKET. PROPOSED ESABLISHMENT OF A COTTAGE HOSPITAL. A few years ago the question of establishing a Cottage Hospital in Newmarket was mooted by Dr. Gray, of this town,… but as the scheme met with some opposition the matter was allowed to slumber for a time. It has now, how-ever, been again introduced by Dr. Gray,…’ Nevertheless, there were objections again, including from Dr Mead, who felt that a smaller scale endeavour would perhaps be appropriate and that other medics and inhabitants of Newmarket were of the same opinion, and that it was thought not ‘advisable to render Newmarket a receptacle for the sick people of the neighbourhood.’ He mentioned using his man-servant’s room again in urgent cases (see 1869 above) and that ‘he had frequently had many of the stable lads under his treatment, and always found that their wants were splendidly attended to. He had hired rooms for them and never had any difficulty in the matter; the trainers always wished for them to have the best attendance, and every possible provision was made for their comfort.’ Reference: The Bury and Norwich Post. Tuesday Mar 3 1874: 8.
1874, 6th October: Dr Mead resigned as medical officer to the workhouse. Reference: 611/29, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: this resignation was required following alleged problems with the way in which he had vaccinated some patients and some other issues. His relationship with the Newmarket Union deteriorated after this for a few years, but then after a disputed election in 1880 he was appointed to the Board of Guardians. Reference: 611/29-31, Newmarket Union minutes. However, it appears the relationship perhaps remained strained and either way came to a head in the mid 1880s, and he does not feature in the minutes after 1886. Reference: 611/32-33, Newmarket Union minutes.]
1874, 27th October: Clement Frederick Gray elected ‘Medical Officer of the Workhouse’, apparently unopposed (this was following George Borwick Mead’s resignation minuted on 6th October). Reference: 611/29, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1875, 16th February: ‘The appointment of Dr. G. B. Mead as Medical Officer of District number 3 expiring on the 25th of March next the clerk was directed to advertise for a Medical Officer of that District upon the same terms, the election to take place on the 9th day of March next’. Reference: 611/29, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1875, 9th March: ‘This being the day fixed for the election of a Medical Officer for District number 3 and the clerk having reported that although an advertisement had appeared in the Local and Medical papers announcing the vacancy no application for the office had been received the Guardians proceeded to consider the best means of providing for the medical attendance upon Paupers in that District when it was ultimately… unanimously resolved to add the parishes comprising that District to the first District and to increase the salary of Mr. Clement F. Gray the Medical Officer of the last mentioned District’. Reference: 611/29, Newmarket Union minutes, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1875, 25th March: ‘UNION MEDICAL DISTRICTS.- The Union medical district comprising the parishes of Ashley, Cheveley, Kennet, Moulton, and Woodditton, for several years held by Dr. Mead, has been annexed to that held by Mr. Clement F. Gray, son and partner of Dr. Gray, of Newmarket, who will commence his new duties on the 25th inst. About 12 months ago Mr. Gray was appointed to the district of Newmarket St. Mary’s and All Saints, on the resignation of Mr. Fyson, and after the small-pox epidemic, during which he was hospital doctor, he was unanimously elected successor to Dr. Mead as medical officer of the Workhouse.’ Reference: The Bury and Norwich Post. Tuseday Mar 23 1875: 8.
1881, 3rd/4th April: George B Mead, aged 49, ‘Physician + Surgeon’, together with his wife Elizabeth O Mead aged 48, son George B. O. Mead aged 24 ‘Physician &c’, daughters Georgina and Jane aged 19 and 16 respectively, and three servants, living at Mentmore House, High St, Newmarket St Mary’s parish. Reference: The National Archives, 1881 census. [Note: see the page on George Owen Mead for an image.]
1885, 11th December: Elizabeth Mead of Newmarket buried at Mepal, aged 52. Reference: An indexed transcription of the parish registers of Mepal. Cambridgeshire Family History Society; 2010, (Cambridgeshire County Record Office [called Cambridgeshire Archives], Cambridge – subsequently relocated to Ely).
1890: ‘MEAD, GEO. BORWICK, Mentmore House, Newmarket, Suffolk, and 13, Royal-avenue, Sloane-sq. Lond. S.W. – Ph.D. and M.A. Giessen (res. and exam.), 1859; L.R.C.P. Lond. 1861; M.R.C.S. Eng. and L.M. 1854; L.S.A. 1854; (St.Bartol.); Prizes and Hon. Certifs. in Anat., Chem., Bot., Phys., Pract. Chem., Mat. Med., and Midw.; Organising Sec. Med. Defence Union; Surg. Rous Memorial Hosp.; late Asst. Surg. Spalding Infirm. Author of “Chloric Æther: its properties, Chem-ical Composition, and Uses,” 1854; “History of Newmarket during the Reign of James I.,” 1864; “The History, Prevention, and Treatment of the Rinderpest, or Russian Cattle Plague, &c.,” 1865; Hygienic Medicine; or, Observations on the use of Baths and Bathing, &c.,” 1866; Contrib. “Cases Illustrative of the use of Baths in the treatment of Disease,” Brit. Med. Journ. 1866; “Physical Hygiene,” Ibid. 1867; “Case of Fragilitas Ossium,” Ibid. 1868.’ Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1890. [Note: he starts listing a London address in 1890, in addition to his Newmarket address. In 1891 it’s 5 Winchester Rd, S. Hampstead. Lond. N.W., in 1892 it’s back to the Sloane Square address as here, until 1895 when it becomes 32 Bedford Place W.C., then 1 Oakley Street S.W. in 1896. In 1897 the address is the same, but strangely his middle name is changed to Borthwick (which spelling remains until his last posthumous entry in 1902 – see below). In 1898 he appears to drop both his London and Newmarket address, recording ‘Mentmore, Chester-ton, Cambridge’, which changes to Mentmore, 44 Glisson Rd., Cambridge in 1899, then the number changes to 48 in 1901 (with the house still called Mentmore).], [Note also, from 1893 he lists ‘Hon. Sec. Lond. and Cos. Med. Protec. Soc.’ instead of the MDU role, then from 1896 ‘Chairman Med. Defence Insur. Syndicate’.], [Note also, see changes of address in The Medical Register below, which largely mirror these changes.]
1891, 5th/6th April: George B Mead aged 59, ‘General Medical Practitioner’, widower, born in Ramsay [sic] Hunts, living in Royal Avenue, Chelsea, London. Reference: The National Archives, 1891 census. [Note: George Owen Mead aged 34 ‘medical man surg.’, Georgina Mead aged 20 and Georgette J Mead aged 16 (oddly, if this is Georgina and Jane, their ages seem 10 years out – but see comments 1862 above), and three servants, shown in Mentmore House, still in Newmarket, and described as ‘Son, Daughter and Daughter’, with no head of household recorded, implying that George Borwick Mead in London was still regarded as the head of this four ‘Georges’ household. Interestingly, by strange coincidence one of the servants was called Frederick Page – see the page on George Owen Mead for an image], [Note also, he is not on the 1901 census, which was taken on 31st March / 1st April, after his death.]
1892, March: George Borwick Mead, Physician, Mentmore, Newmarket, Suffolk, witness to seven signatures on the Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association of the London & Counties Medical Protection Society, Limited, dated 28th March 1892. The associated duplicate Certificate of Incorporation is dated 31st March 1892, certified received by George Borthwick Mead, Mentmore, Newmarket, 23rd October 1893. Reference: Online images of the original documents, Companies House. https://beta.companieshouse.gov.uk/company/00036142/filing-history?page=10 (accessed 5th December 2017). [Note: see image above], [Note also, this 1893 example is the earliest found to date with the new Borthwick spelling.], [Note also, George Borwick Mead was one of the 13 original members of the society, the others being the seven names on the Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association, Charles Fegen (see 28th May below) and four others. Reference: Personal correspondence with the MPS.]
1892, 7th May: ‘THE LONDON AND COUNTIES MEDICAL PROTECTION SOCIETY, LIMITED.- The first annual general meeting of the London and Counties Medical Protection Society, Limited, was held on Monday, April 25th. The steps already taken in the for-mation of the Society were unanimously approved and rati-fied by the meeting. The objects of the Society, as set forth in its memorandum of association, are: To protect, support, and safeguard the character and interests of legally qualified medical and dental practitioners, and to advise and defend members of the Society when attacked, etc.… The Society dates the commencement of its operations from May 1st, 1892, and the annual subscription of 10s, becomes due in advance on May 1st in each year… the honorary secretaries are Drs. George B. Mead, Mentmore, Newmarket, and Hugh Woods, 11, Archway Road, High-gate, N.’ Reference: Medical News section. The British Medical Journal 1892;1(1636):1000.
1892, 21st May: Under the heading, ‘LONDON AND COUNTIES MEDICAL PROTECTION SOCIETY, LIMITED’, ‘GEO. B. MEAD, Hon. Sec.’ wrote to The Lancet on 16th May 1892 promoting the advantages of a protection society. Reference: The Lancet 1892;139(3586):1159.
1892, 28th May: Under the heading, ‘LONDON AND COUNTIES MEDICAL PROTECTION SOCIETY, LIMITED’, ‘C. M. FEGEN’ of Brandon wrote to The Lancet on 23rd May 1892 ‘SIRS.- … I owe a deep debt of gratitude to many members of the profession, more particularly to Dr. Mead, Dr. Balding, and Dr. Grove, who spared neither time nor trouble to help me at a time when help and sympathy were invaluable,… / I am glad to find the efficiency of this mode of combina-tion for the professional good is likely to be rendered more efficient by the London and Counties Medical Protection Society (Limited). I am certain all members of the pro-fession will feel that the interests of the humblest as well as the most highly placed will be safe in the hands of such men as Mr. Jonathan Hutchinson, F R.S. [sic], Dr. G. A. Heron, F.R.C.P., and Dr. Mead. I have had the greatest pleasure in joining this Society, and in getting many of my friends to do the same…’ Reference: The Lancet 1892;139(3586):1159.
1892, 19th November: Under the heading ‘Medical News’, ‘LONDON AND COUNTIES MEDICAL PROTECTION SOCIETY, LIMITED.- A meeting was held at Park House, Croydon, on the 14th ult. (Dr. Duncan in the chair), to establish a branch of the above Society for Croydon and neighbouring places. Dr. Mead, of Newmarket and London, explained the constitution and objects of the Society, and answered several questions on points of detail.’ Reference: The Lancet 1892;140(3612):1203.
1896: ‘Mead George Borthwick M.A., L.R.C.P.Lond. surgeon, Mentmore house, High street’ in the commercial section of Kelly’s Directory for Newmarket, Cambridgeshire. Reference: Kelly’s Directory of Cambridgeshire… . London: Kelly & Co., Limited; 1896, pgs 137-145 (Newmarket section). [Note: Ernest Last Fyson, Clement Frederick Gray, James Percy Grieves, Walter Hutchinson, John Hansby Maund and George Owen Mead are listed separately.]
1896, 3rd June: Marriage licence between George Borthwick Mead, widower, of St Mary’s parish, Newmarket, and Frances Mildred Johnson, spinster aged 19, of St Mary Abbots parish, Kensington, with the consent of her father Frederick Appleyard Johnson. Reference: Online image of the Surrey Marriage Bonds and Allegations records held at the London Metropolitan Archives, ancestry.co.uk (accessed 24th November 2017). [Note: the 1891 and 1881 censuses reveal that his young wife was a gentleman farmer’s daughter from Wicken near Soham (near Newmarket) originally. Reference: The National Archives, 1881 and 1891 censuses. – see 1901 census below also.]
1896, 25th September 1896: ‘NOTICE is hereby given that the Partnership which has for some time past been carried on by George Borwick Mead and George Owen Mead under the firm of Mead and Son at Newmarket in the County of Suffolk in the business of Surgeons and Apothecaries was this day dissolved by mutual consent.– As witness our hands this 25th day of September 1896. / GEORGE BORWICK MEAD. / GEO. OWEN MEAD.’ Reference: The London Gazette. Oct 16 1896; Issue 26786: 5690.
1900, 16th March: George Owen Mead of Newmarket buried at Mepal, aged 43. Reference: An indexed transcription of the parish registers of Mepal. Cambridgeshire Family History Society; 2010, (Cambridgeshire County Record Office [called Cambridgeshire Archives], Cambridge – subsequently relocated to Ely).
1900, 17th March: A newspaper reported the funeral of George Owen Mead, which took place on Friday 16th March at Mepal. It reported that he ‘was interred in the pretty little churchyard at Mepal… in accordance with the deceased’s wish to be buried near his mother. The body was taken by road to Mepal… The hearse was accompanied by two coaches, conveying the friends and relatives of the deceased.’ Those in attendance at the graveside included ‘Mr Percy Mead (brother), Dr Gray, Dr Hutchinson, Dr Maud [sic.]…’. There were floral tributes from many, including his father, sisters ‘Georgie and Janie’ and interestingly ‘his son, Owen’. It’s not clear from the report whether these people were all present as well, likely at least some were. Reference: Cambridge Daily News. Saturday Mar 17 1900: 3.
1901, 15th March: Date of death of George Borwick Mead of Glisson Rd, Cambridge, recorded in the national probate records. Reference: Online image of National Probate Registry entry, ancestry.co.uk (accessed 21st November 2017). [Note: the probate date was 18th May 1901, to George Percy Mead, gentleman. He can be found ‘living on own means’ in Bicton, Shropshire on the 1901 census. Reference: The National Archives, 1901 census.]
1901, 15th March: Memorial ‘IN MEMORY OF / GEORGE BORTHWICK MEAD. M.D. / DIED MARCH 15TH 1901, / AGED 68 YEARS. / A TOKEN OF AFFECTION FROM HIS LOVING WIFE.’ Reference: Memorial in Mill Road Cemetery, Cambridge. [Note: see image above.], [Note: I found this memorial on Wednesday 22nd November 2017. The metal wording and punctuation was starting to crumble and fall off, but was clearly visible on that day as transcribed here. I have images for anyone interested, which might be deposited in the Cambridgeshire and Suffolk County record offices in due course, along with this whole work (the 2019 date on the image above is correct – I went back to get a better overview image for the website).], [Note also, the same day in 2017 I looked at 44 and 48 Glisson Road (see 1890 Medical Directory entry above) and neither were visibly called ‘Mentmore’ still, or any other name, although some other houses in the street did have names carved into them.]
1901, 31st March / 1st April: Frances Mildred Mead, born in Wicken, Cambridgeshire, aged 25, widow, living at 48 Glisson Road, Cambridge, with her sister and two servants. Reference: The National Archives, 1901 census. [Note: by the 1911 census Frances was remarried to Archibald George May (who by way of contrast was significantly younger than her) and living in Southall, Middlesex. Reference: The National Archives, 1911 census. They married at St John’s, Southall on 26th November 1910. Reference: Online image of the Southall St John’s marriage register held at The London Metropolitan Archives, ancestry.co.uk (accessed 24th November 2017).]
1902: ‘MEAD, GEO. BORTHWICK, Mentmore, 48, Glisson-rd. Cambridge – Ph.D and M.A. Giessen (res. and exam.), 1859; L.R.C.P. Lond. 1861; M.R.C.S. Eng. and L.M. 1854; L.S.A. 1854; (St.Bart.); Prizes and Hon. Certifs. in Anat., Chem., Bot., Phys., Pract. Chem., Mat. Med., and Midw.; Chairman Med. De-fence Insur. Syndicate; Surg. Rous Memor. Hosp.; Med. Ref. Workm. Compens. Act; Surg. Ambul. de la Presse Paris, Franco-German War (Legion of Honour 1871); late Asst.-Surg. Spalding Infirm. Author of “Chloric Æther: its properties, Chemical Composition, and Uses,” 1854; “History of New-market during the Reign of James I.,” 1864; “The History, Prevention and Treatment of the Rinder-pest, or Russian Cattle Plague, &c.,” 1865; Hygienic Medicine: or, Observations on the use of Baths and Bathing, &c.,” 1866; “Medical Defence,” 1894. Contrib. “Cases Illustrative of the use of Baths in the treatment of Disease,” Brit. Med. Journ. 1866; “Physical Hygiene,” Ibid. 1867; “Case of Fragilitas Ossium,” Ibid. 1868.’ Reference: The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1902. [Note: this was his last entry in the Medical Directory, although he had died the year before.]
Medical Protection Society history. http://www.medicalprotection.org/uk/about-mps/our-history (accessed 5th December 2017). [Note: it’s very interesting that George Bor(th)wick Mead was involved with the founding of this institution (see 1892 references above), which is now a global organisation. Unfortunately his relationship with them seems to have ended in 1895, when he used their headed notepaper to write an unauthorised letter critical of various aspects of the medical establishment. Reference: The Lancet 1895;145(3732):639-640. The headed notepaper of the society gives his Newmarket address (and reveals that there were two Honorary Secretaries), but the bottom of the letter is signed ‘G. B. MEAD. 1, Oakley-street, London, S.W., Feb. 27th.’ (see 1890 Medical Directory entry above). This appears to have been what prompted his move to the Medical Defence Insurance Syndicate.]
Newmarket Union Minutes 1856-1886. Reference: 611/21-33, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: not all entries regarding George Borwick Mead in these minutes have been detailed above. Those not recorded are largely about routine payments.]
Shops History Newmarket. http://www.newmarketshops.info/index.html. [Note: newmarketshops.info has been supplied with information regarding the medical history of Newmarket by the author of talkingdust.net since August 2013 (see footnotes on some of the pages). Both websites continue to be developed, and in this sense are mutually symbiotic.]
Suffolk Medical Biographies. Profile for Mead, George Borwick. http://www.suffolkmedicalbiographies.co.uk/Profile.asp?Key=1436 (originally accessed pre October 2013). [Note: at the time of writing (November 2017), this website had only four references to George Borwick Mead.], [Note also, see comments regarding this website on the Francis Greene page.]
The Medical Directory. London: Churchill; 1855-1902. [Note: see above references for full 1855-57, 1860, 1890 and 1902 entries, 1855 entry for Joseph Mead, and 1857 & 59 entries for Frederick Page], [Note also, this publication has been known by various titles over the years. Initially it just covered London, but from 1847 it had a wider remit, being variously known as the London and Provincial Medical Directory, The Medical Directories, The Medical Directory, etc., essentially the same work with minor variations and developments. It is usually referred to as The Medical Directory (as opposed to The Medical Register), so that is how it’s consistently referred to on talkingdust.net.]
The Medical Register. London: General Medical Council; 1859ff. [Note: the first edition in 1859 records his address as ‘Mentmere [sic] house’. He’s recorded in Mentmore House, Newmarket, until 1898, when his address changes to Mentmore, De Freville Ave., Cambridge, then the following year to 44 Glisson Rd., Cambridge, which it remained until his last entry in 1901.], [Note also, see changes of address in The Medical Directory outlined in his 1890 entry above, which largely mirror these changes.]
Note: For published material referenced on this website see the ‘Acknowledgements for resources of published material’ section on the ‘Usage &c.’ page. The sources used for original unpublished documents are noted after each individual reference. Any census records are referenced directly to The National Archives, since images of these are so ubiquitous on microfilm and as digital images that they almost function like published works. Census records are covered by the ‘Open Government Licence’ as should be other such public records (see the ‘Copyright and related issues’ section on the ‘Usage &c.’ page for which references constitute public records, and any other copyright issues more generally such as fair dealing/use etc.).