Thomas Searancke 2 is numbered like this because he was the second of three medical Thomas Searanckes practising in Newmarket during the 18th century, the son of Thomas Searancke 1 (see The Searanckes). Born in Newmarket and baptised at St Mary’s church in 1723, he was one of at least seven children, although only four survived into adulthood – all mentioned in his father’s will of 1748 (see the page on Thomas Searancke 1 for details).
Sadly his mother Mary died in 1735 when he was only about 13 years of age. Perhaps shortly after that he would have begun an apprenticeship to his father, who at that time might well have been working alongside the younger Simon Clements, who possibly had been an earlier apprentice (see the pages on Simon Clements and Thomas Searancke 1 for more discussion on that). Although Thomas Searancke 1 was only ever referred to as an apothecary, Thomas Searancke 2 was later described as a surgeon, apothecary and even druggist. There are numerous references in which he is referred to by the term surgeon only, others both surgeon and apothecary, and in the school and university records of his son (Thomas Searancke 3) he’s referred to as a druggist (see The history of medical treatments, training, qualifications and regulation for more background on these terms).
As far as we know, William Sandiver 1 was the only medic in town calling himself a surgeon at the time that Thomas Searancke 2 would have been an apprentice. The Sandivers appear to have been the rival practice to the Searanckes throughout most of the 18th century, so it seems perhaps unlikely that Thomas Searancke 2 would have acquired surgical training from the Sandivers? It’s interesting that the Sandivers appear to have started off surgical and evolved into surgeon-apothecaries and the Searanckes started off as apothecaries and evolved into apothecary-surgeons. Is it perhaps possible though that they co-operated in mutual training? Thomas Searancke 2 was only about 13 years of age when the surgeons Wotton Braham and Edward Harwell died in 1735, so would not have obtained his surgical training from them. All things considered, most likely Thomas Searancke 2 obtained his surgical training from his father Thomas Searancke 1, who although preferring the term apothecary likely had surgical skills too.
In 1749 Thomas Searancke 2 married Susanna Atwood in Norwich, after which they had at least nine children baptised in Newmarket, including Thomas Searancke 3, the only medic amongst them as far as we know (the family’s second Thomas, the first having died – repeating history, since the same happened with Thomas Searancke 1 – see The Searanckes). In 1748 Thomas Searancke 2 would still have been working alongside his father, who described himself as a Newmarket apothecary in his will made that year (so still in Newmarket). However, by the time of the will’s codicil in 1751 Thomas Searancke 1 appears to have retired to Bury St Edmunds. Simon Clements had already died in 1746, so likely Thomas Searancke 2 continued the practice alone, working it seems from a building called ‘the workhouse’ owned by Simon Clements’ father in law John Scotman in 1750 (when it was inherited by Simon Clements’ son). Given the name of the building it’s possible that the Searanckes were medical officers to the workhouse, although this might have been an historic rather than contemporary function of the building.
In 1753 Thomas Searancke 2 and William Sandiver 1 were listed as the two Newmarket medics licensed by the Bishop of Norwich to practice surgery in the town at that time. This appears to have been a list of those already licensed, not the year in which they were licensed. It was not necessary to be licensed as an apothecary (as opposed to surgeon) at that time, which became compulsory in 1815 (see The history of medical treatments, training, qualifications and regulation), but Thomas Searancke 2 was unusual for a provincial apothecary of his period in being associated with the London Society of Apothecaries (see the image of a fascinating document from there below). According to the archives he appears to have passed their examination in 1769 and joined the Society in 1770, the year he’s also recorded as the official trainer of his son Thomas Searancke 3 (see the page on Thomas Searancke 3 for an image of a document relating to that). However, there is no evidence that Thomas Searancke 3 was ever licensed or became a member of their society himself, before his untimely death in 1777. Contemporary lists of members exist which show a Thomas Searancke from 1770, last mentioned in 1793. Specifically between 1771 and 1777 there is only one Thomas Searancke listed. Also there were a couple of medical registers compiled in the 18th century, and these show Thomas Searancke 2 having the rank of yeoman at the Society of Apothecaries in 1779 and liveryman in 1783. There is no evidence that any other pre-1815 Newmarket medics were associated with the London Apothecaries.
During the latter half of the 18th century smallpox inoculation became increasingly popular (see Newmarket and smallpox for more details). In 1762 Thomas Searancke 2’s name appeared alongside others (William Sandiver 1 and the poorly documented Elijah Robinson) declaring Newmarket free from smallpox (see an image of this on the page about Newmarket and smallpox), then in 1763 the Cambridge Chronicle newspaper included the statement, ‘We are assured from Newmarket, that Mr. Searancke, Surgeon and Apothecary, has taken a commodious house within five miles of the said place, for inoculating the Small Pox: and that he will be ready to receive patients by the middle of May next.’ It’s interesting that in 1754 (according to his fathers 1748 will) Thomas Searancke 2 would likely have inherited ‘real estate’ in Burwell, later referred to in the same will as a ‘premises’. Was this possibly the same house? Although the paper uses the term ‘taken’, implying a recent acquisition, such an implication may be wrong in a paper then as now. The other interesting thing that Thomas inherited (mentioned in the codicil) was, ‘my silver pocket piece [presumably a pocket watch?] washed with gold being in a shagreen case’ – perhaps this is still in the possession of a Searancke descendant? The smallpox inoculation enterprise continued and expanded it seems in 1764 as evidenced by a series of adverts in the Ipswich Journal (see an image of one below).
Sadly Thomas Searancke’s wife Susanna died quite young at the age of 36 in 1763, a similar age to his mother Mary. Susanna appears perhaps to have died as a result of childbirth, since she was buried the same day that her son Charles was baptised, who perhaps was sick and therefore baptised in the first few days of his life? Like his father, Thomas Searancke 2 was left with a young family (even younger than that of his father – Thomas Searancke 3 was only about 7 years old when his mother died). There’s no evidence that Thomas Searancke 2 remarried. By the time of his will, written in 1785, he had four surviving sons (William, Rookwood, Attwood and Charles – presumably Charles rallied after his apparent shaky start), and a daughter Mary married to Albertus Pars or Parr.
Finally Thomas Searancke 2 died and was buried at St Mary’s church Newmarket in 1794. As far as we know that marked the end of the Searancke practice, the only other medics active in Newmarket in the mid-1790s being William Sandiver 2, John Edwards (and Walter Norton, likely as part of that practice), and possibly the transient Richard Woodthorpe. Thomas Searancke 2 is listed in The Universal British Directory of 1791 (see an image on the Faint traces page), so was still in practice in 1791 at least, and may well have practised right up until his death in 1794 at the age of 72.
Image 1: From The Society of Apothecaries’ second (amended) Laboratory Stock Agreement Book 1767-75, reference MS 8215, B/1/U/1 (cropped); image ©, reproduced with kind permission of The Society of Apothecaries Archives, London. [Note: click here for a full transcription.]
Image 2: The Ipswich Journal. Saturday Aug 25 1764: 1 (cropped); image © The British Library Board, all rights reserved, reproduced with kind permission of The British Newspaper Archive, www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk. [Note: clicking here leads to the specific page on their website, but requires logging in to it.]
Note: see comments regarding images and copyright © etc. on the Usage &c. page as well.
1723, 2nd January: Thomas son of Thomas and Mary Searanck baptised, St Mary’s church, Newmarket. Reference: J552/9, microfilm of Newmarket St Mary’s parish register, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1734, 24th April: ‘Searank (Thos.) aged 11 years 24th April 1734’, in ‘An alphabetical list of King’s scholars compiled by James Bentham and others and covering the period 1698-1815. This list is written at the back of stray memoranda about cathedral finances. Arranged chronologically for each surname initial.’ Reference: Owen DM, Thurley D. The King’s School Ely. A collection of documents relating to the history of the school and its scholars. Cambridge: Cambridge Antiquarian Records Society; 1982.
1748, 2nd August: The will of Thomas Searancke of Newmarkett… apothecary (probate 4th December 1754). Reference: IC500/1/208(67), (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1749, 21st December: ‘Tho’ Searancke of Newmarket married Susanna Atwood [of ? in Suffolk – not legible], St Etheldreda’s church, Norwich, Norfolk. Reference: MF/RO 193, microfilm of Norwich St Etheldreda’s parish register, (Norfolk County Record Office, Norwich).
1750, 13th September: The will of John Scotman of Newmarket… Clerk (probate 27th September 1750). Reference: IC500/1/204(46), (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: this mentions a house he owned in Newmarket known as ‘the workhouse’ occupied by Thomas Searancke, apothecary and surgeon. This could have been Thomas Searancke 1 or Thomas Searancke 2, but was probably the latter who was likely the Thomas Searancke junior witnessing the will (possibly both lived and worked there – were they perhaps medical officers to the workhouse?). In his will this property was left to Simon Clements the nephew of John Scotman, son of Simon Clements the apothecary, possibly an apprentice of Thomas Searancke 1?], [Note also, see the 1760 lease below as well.]
1751, 1st February: Mary daughter of Tho.s [sic] and Susanna Searanck baptised, St Mary’s church, Newmarket. Reference: J502/59, microfilm of archdeacon’s transcripts, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: I have used the microfilm of the bishop’s transcript because this page is missing from the parish register microfilm J552/9. The photographer must have turned over two pages at once, since the transcript J562/69 contains entries for this page also.]
1751, 26th July: Codicil to the 1748 will above (probate 4th December 1754). ‘Thomas Searancke the Elder late of Newmarkett and now of Bury Saint Edmunds… Gent’. Reference: IC500/1/208(67), (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1752, 18th October: Tho son of Tho and Susannah Searanck baptised, St Mary’s church, Newmarket. Reference: J552/9, microfilm of Newmarket St Mary’s parish register, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1753: Thomas Searancke surgeon on a list by deanery and parish of curates, schoolmasters and surgeons licensed within the archdeaconry of Suffolk and Sudbury and diocese of Norwich. Reference: JC1/5(20), a microfilm of a number of volumes, this being defined as Volume 3 (1753), (Suffolk County Record Office, Ipswich). [Note: on this document all entries are dated either 1753 or not dated. It appears therefore possibly to have been a list compiled in 1753, perhaps as an exercise to list those already licensed and license those who were not yet licensed but already in practice (perhaps these are the ones dated?). Whether the medical licenses are for surgery, midwifery or phlebotomy is indicated by S M or Ph after each name (made clear by the abbreviations Surg Midw and Pheb on the first page). Under the parish of Newmarket St Marys only Wm Sandiver and Tho.s Searancke are listed, no dates given, and each given the annotation s. for surgeon. Wallis and Wallis (see below) chose to interpret this as them being licensed before 1753, which is probably correct.]
1754, 10th April: Susannah daughter of Thomas and Susannah Searancke baptised, St Mary’s church, Newmarket. Reference: J552/9, microfilm of Newmarket St Mary’s parish register, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1754, 9th December: Thomas son of Thomas and Susannah Searancke buried, St Mary’s church, Newmarket. Reference: J552/9, microfilm of Newmarket St Mary’s parish register, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1756, 13th February: Thomas son of Thomas and Susannah Searancke baptised, St Mary’s church, Newmarket. Reference: J552/9, microfilm of Newmarket St Mary’s parish register, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1757, 25th September: William son of Thomas and Susannah Searancke baptised, St Mary’s church, Newmarket. Reference: J552/9, microfilm of Newmarket St Mary’s parish register, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1759, 17th August: Rookwood son and Elizabeth daughter of Thomas and Susanna Searancke baptised, St Mary’s church, Newmarket. Reference: J503/12, microfilm of archdeacon’s transcripts, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: the microfilm of the parish register is barely visible for this entry, so I have used the contemporary archdeacon’s ‘bishop’s’ transcript.]
1760, 23rd June: ‘Thomas Searancke of Newmarket… surgeon’ mentioned leasing a property for a year in Newmarket. Reference: Ac389, at the time of this research in an otherwise uncatalogued box of old deeds relating to Newmarket labelled 61E Box 1, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: the property was an inn called The Green Man and the other person leasing it with him was Robert Warren, an Innholder, who presumably therefore ran what was perhaps a joint business venture?], [Note also, it’s of interest as well that they were leasing it from Thomas Scotman (and his wife Mary) who’d inherited it from Mary Scotman, mother in law of Simon Clements the apothecary – see the page on Simon Clements and the 1750 reference above also.]
1761, 2nd September: Atwood son of Thomas and Susanna Searancke (St Mary’s) baptised, All Saints’ church, Newmarket. Reference: Microfiche of Newmarket All Saints’ parish register (fiche 3), (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1762, 9th August: ‘Tho. Searancke’ alongside ‘E. Robinson’ and ‘Wm. Sandriver [sic]’, ‘Sur-geons’, and the curate, churchwardens, overseers and other inhabitants listed (including interestingly ‘Marcon Braham’ son of Wotton Braham), ‘We the Minister, Churchwardens, Overseers of the poor, and others, principal Inhabitants of the Town of NEW-MARKET, whose Names are underwritten, having this Day made the strict-est Enquiry relative to the SMALL-POX, do hereby certify, that the said Town is now entirely free from that Distemper.’ Reference: The Ipswich Journal. Saturday Aug 14 1762: 3. [Note: see an image of this on the page about Newmarket and smallpox.]
1763, 30th April: ‘We are assured from Newmarket, that Mr. Searancke, Surgeon and Apothecary, has taken a commodious house within five miles of the said place, for inoculating the Small Pox: and that he will be ready to receive patients by the middle of May next.’ Reference: The Cambridge Chronicle. Saturday Apr 30 1763: 3.
1763, 3rd November: Susanna wife of Thomas Searancke buried, St Mary’s church, Newmarket: Reference: J552/9, microfilm of Newmarket St Mary’s parish register, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: the transcript of the Searancke memorials gives her year of death as 1765, but clearly this is incorrect. Whether it’s the transcripts or the original stone that have the error on is not known, since the original stone is no longer visible, but the fact that two apparently independent transcripts have the same error suggests that the error is on the stone, or that the stone was damaged and poorly visible at this point.]
1763, 3rd November: Charles son of Thomas and Susannah Searancke baptised, St Mary’s church, Newmarket. Reference: J552/9, microfilm of Newmarket St Mary’s parish register, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1764: ‘INOCULATING the SMALL-POX. THOMAS SEARANCKE, of NEWMARKET. SURGEON and APOTHECARY. HAVING been encouraged by his Friends, and the Success he has met with, to fit up separate Houses, at proper Distances, for inoculating, nursing, and airing his Patients, which he discontinued during the hot Months, will begin to take in Patients again on the 14th of September; and as his Houses are large and commodious, for the Reception of Persons of different Ranks, he has fixed the several Prices of Four, Five, and Six Guineas for the whole Expense. Such as are desirous to be prepared at Mr. Searanke’s own House, or to have Friends with them, shall meet with genteel Treatment, on moderate Terms.’ Reference: The Ipswich Journal. Saturday Aug 11 1764: 1., Saturday Aug 18 1764: 1., Saturday Aug 25 1764: 1., Saturday Sept 1 1764: 4., Saturday Sept 8 1764: 1., Saturday Sept 15 1764: 1. [Note: the same advert appeared in these five consecutive weekly editions – see an image from the 25th August edition above – and note the two different spellings of Searan(c)ke in the same advert.]
1770, 5th June: ‘Thomas Searancke having paid a Fine of £16-19:- and 40s. to the Garden was pursuant to an order of a court of assistants of the 16th Day of June last Examined approved Sworn and made Free by Redemption’. Reference: Freedom Admissions Book, The Society of Apothecaries Archives, Apothecaries’ Hall, Black Friars Lane, London EC4V 6EJ.
1770, 2nd July: ‘We Robert Longley and Thomas Searancke Members of the Society of apothecaries London in pursuance of the articles of agreement in Folio 1,2,3,4,5,6, of this Book and late Order of the Committee having severally paid into the stock therein mentioned the sum of Twenty Pounds do hereby consent and agree to the several covenants clauses payments constitutions and agreements in the said articles contained and do each of us doth for ourselves severally and for our several and respective Executors and adinors [abbreviation for Administrators] Covenant promise and agree to and with the master wardens and society of the art and mistery of apothecaries of the City of London and their successors well and truly to observe perform pay fulfill and keep all and singular the said covenants clauses payments constitutions and agreements according to the true intent and meaning thereof’. Reference: MS 8215, B/1/U/1, second (amended) Laboratory Stock Agreement Book 1767-75, The Society of Apothecaries Archives, Apothecaries’ Hall, Black Friars Lane, London EC4V 6EJ. [Note: see image above.]
1770 7th August: ‘Thomas Searancke Son of Thomas Searancke of Newmarket in the County of Cambridge apothecary bound to his said father’. Reference: Apprentice Binding Book 1694-1836, The Society of Apothecaries Archives, Apothecaries’ Hall, Black Friars Lane, London EC4V 6EJ.
1772, 20th April: Mary Searancke married Albertus Parr of St Clement Danes, London, at St Mary’s church, Newmarket. Reference: J562/69, microfilm transcript, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). [Note: the entry on the microfilm of the original register (J522/9) is very faded but just about visible.]
1772 24th October: Thomas Searancke of Newmarket surgeon and apothecary mentioned in a land and property transaction. Newmarket Manorial records. Reference: 359/13, pg 39-40, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1777, 2nd February: Tho Searancke buried, St Mary’s church, Newmarket. Reference: J552/9, microfilm of Newmarket St Mary’s parish register, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
1779: ‘Thomas Searancke, Newmarket’ is listed as a member of the London Society of Apothecaries under yeomanry in the Medical Register made that year. Reference: The Medical Register for the year 1779. London: Printed for J. Murray, No 32, Fleet Street; 1779, pg 37. [Note: strangely, under the section regarding Newmarket on pg 132 only William Sandiver is listed.]
1780: In the Poll book for this year, Thomas Searancke listed under Burwell as a freeholder, but as a non-resident of Burwell resident at Newmarket. Reference: ‘The poll for the election of two representatives in parliment for the County of Cambridge on Thursday, Sept. 14, 1780. Cambridge: Francis Hodson; 1780, pg 64.
1783: ‘Thomas Searancke, Newmarket’ is listed as a member of the London Society of Apothecaries under livery in the Medical Register made that year. Reference: The Medical Register for the year 1783. London: Printed for Joseph Johnson, No 72, St Paul’s church-yard; 1779, pg 27. [Note: strangely, under the section regarding Newmarket on pg 110 only William Sandiver is listed.]
1785, 8th September: Will of Thomas Searancke of Newmarket in the County of Cambridge Surgeon (probate 20th February 1794). Reference: The National Archives, Records of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, PROB 11/1242/107.
1790: Thomas Searanke on the electoral roll for Newmarket, and as a freeholder in Newmarket. Reference: ‘The Poll for the Kinghts of the shire, for the county of Suffolk, taken at Ipswich, before Miles Barne, Esq. High-Sheriff, on Tuesday and Wednesday, June 29th and 30th, 1790’. Ipswich: G. Jermyn; 1790.
1791: Thomas Searancke, surgeon, Newmarket, Cambridgeshire [listed under ‘Physic.’]. Reference: The Universal British Directory of Trade, Commerce, and Manufacture. London: Printed for the patentees, at the British Directory Office, Ave Maria-Lane; and sold by Champante and Whitrow, Jewery-Street, Aldgate; 1791. [Note: see the Faint traces page for an image of this.]
[Note: I have not been able to find a record of the burial of Thomas Searancke in 1794, aside from on the memorial transcribed below – perhaps the officials forgot to record it; such omissions are known to have occurred in parish records.]
May P. The changing face of Newmarket 1600 – 1760. Peter May Publications; 1984.
Microfilm transcripts of St Mary’s and All Saints’ parish records, Newmarket: Reference: J562/69, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St. Edmunds).
Nichols JG. The topographer and genealogist. London: John Bowyer Nichols and sons; 1853; Vol II, pg 392. Under Catalogue of Sepulchral Monuments, &c. Lackford Hundred, Suffolk. Newmarket, St. Mary. Monuments: ‘3. Mural, large, of stone, for Mary Searancke, late wife of Thos. Searancke, and daughter of Wm. Sandiver, both of this parish. She died June 2, 1735, aged 35. Also the said Thos. Searancke, who died Nov. 23, 1754, aged 76. Also Susanna Searancke, who died Nov. 2, 1765, aged 36. Also Thos. Searancke, surgeon, who died Feb. 5, 1794, aged 72. Also Dorothy Holmes, relict of the late Wm. Holmes, Esq. of Thetford, Norf, who died 6th June 1802, aged 82.’ [Note: there is also a transcript on J562/69 (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds). It shows that the above transcript is not word for word, since it reads, ‘Large mural monument in stone “In the middle of the Chancel resteth ye body of Mary Searancke late wife of Thos Searancke and daughter of Wm Sandiver both of this Parish she departed this life June ye 2d 1735 aged 35 Also ye Body of ye said Tho Searancke who departed this life novr ye 23d 1754 aged 76 Also ye Body of Susanna Searancke who departed this life novr 2d 1765 aged 36 years” On a piece of stone below “Also the body of Tho Searancke Surgeon eminent in his Profession and much Respected by all who knew him He departed this life Feby 5th 1794 Aged 72 years Also the Body of Dorothy Holmes relict of the late Willm Holmes Esqr of Thetford who departed this life June 6th 1802 aged 82 years”’.], [Note also, this memorial is no longer visible (in 2013/14), presumably having been removed or covered over in later renovation works?], [Note also, both transcripts give Susanna Searancke’s year of death as 1765, but clearly this is incorrect since she is recorded in the 1763 burial register (see above). Whether it’s the transcripts or the original stone that have the error on is not known, since the original stone is no longer visible, but the fact that two apparently independent transcripts have the same error suggests that the error is on the stone, or that the stone was damaged and poorly visible at this point.]
Personal correspondence with the London Society of Apothecaries’ archives regarding the 18th century contemporary members lists.
S.H.A.H. Biographical List of Boys Educated at King Edward VI Free Grammar School, Bury St. Edmunds. From 1550 to 1900. Bury St Edmunds: Paul & Matthew; 1908. Entry 61: ‘SEARANCKE Thomas. Son of Thomas Searancke of Newmarket, druggist. One year at Bury under Wright. Elected to Hewer exhibition May 1776. Adm. to Caius Coll. March 1776 aged 20. He was dead by March 1777, when William Nesfield was elected to his vacant exhibition.’
Suffolk Medical Biographies. Profile for Searancke, Thomas. http://www.suffolkmedicalbiographies.co.uk/Profile.asp?Key=2549 (originally accessed pre October 2013). [Note: see comments regarding this website on the Francis Greene page.], [Note also, at the time of writing (June 2015) this website had only one page covering the Thomas Searanckes, having merged them, following Wallis and Wallis below, with only two references, one to Wallis and Wallis the other to the will and codicil of Thomas Searancke 1 – oddly, since clearly the probate of that implies there must be more than one in the date range.]
The research notes of Peter May. Reference: HD1584, (Suffolk County Record Office, Bury St Edmunds).
Venn J. Biographical history of Gonville and Caius College 1349-1897. Cambridge: At the University Press; 1898; vol II, pg 96: ‘Searanke, Thomas: son of Thomas Searanke, druggist, of Newmarket, Suff. Born there. School, Bury, one year, under Mr Wright. Age 20. Admitted sizar, March 11, 1776. Scholar, Michs 1776 to L.Day 1777.’
Wallis PJ, Wallis RV. Eighteenth century medics. [2nd ed.]. Newcastle Upon Tyne: Project for Historical Biobibliography; 1988. [Note: this references two Thomas Searan(c)kes, one as apothecary and subscriber London and Newmarket before 1735 and after 1783 appearing to have merged the different Thomas Searanckes, but Thomas Searancke 2’s bishop’s licence is listed separately as Thomas Searancke surgeon.]
Note: For published material referenced on this website see the ‘Acknowledgements for resources of published material’ section on the ‘Usage &c.’ page. The sources used for original unpublished documents are noted after each individual reference. Any census records are referenced directly to The National Archives, since images of these are so ubiquitous on microfilm and as digital images that they almost function like published works. Census records are covered by the ‘Open Government Licence’ as should be other such public records (see the ‘Copyright and related issues’ section on the ‘Usage &c.’ page for which references constitute public records, and any other copyright issues more generally such as fair dealing/use etc.).